شیوع شناسی اختلال یادگیری غیرکلامی در دانش‌آموزان پسر شهر کرج

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، مرکز تحقیقات توانبخشی اعصاب اطفال، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد روانشناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه روان‌پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه آمار زیستی، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، تهران، ایران

10.22075/jcp.2020.17486.1651

چکیده

هدف: اختلال یادگیری غیرکلامی به عنوان نشانگان خاص در یادگیری و حتی استدلال در نظر گرفته‌ می‌شود. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی شیوع اختلال یادگیری غیرکلامی در دانش‌آموزان پسر مقطع ابتدایی در شهر کرج انجام شد.
روش‌: در این مطالعه توصیفی- تحلیلی، از دانش‌آموزان پسر پایه‌های تحصیلی چهارم، پنجم و ششم ابتدایی شهر کرج، 286 دانش‌آموز با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی طبقه‌ای انتخاب و با استفاده از مقیاس کم‌توانی‌های یادگیری غیرکلامی کودکان ارزیابی شدند. سپس 8 دانش‌آموز که نمره‌ 30 و بالاتر در مقیاس مذکور به دست آوردند مشکوک به اختلال یادگیری غیرکلامی تشخیص داده شدند و با استفاده از سومین نسخه آزمون هوشی وکسلر کودکان مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. 5 نفر از دانش‌آموزان (3 نفر از پایه چهارم و 2 نفر از پایه ششم) که هوشبهر کلی آنها 85 و بالاتر بود و هوش‌بهر کلامی آنها 10 امتیاز یا بیشتر با هوش‌بهر عملی آنها اختلاف داشت، به عنوان افراد دارای اختلال یادگیری غیرکلامی تشخیص دریافت کردند. داده‌ها با استفاده از آزمون یو مان-ویتنی در نرم‌افزار SPSS نسخه 22 تحلیل شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج حاکی از آن بود که میزان شیوع اختلال یادگیری غیرکلامی در دانش‌آموزان پسر 8/1% بود. در واقع، 6/2% دانش‌آموزان پسر در پایه چهارم ابتدایی و 4/2% در پایه ششم ابتدایی مبتلا به اختلال یادگیری غیرکلامی بودند.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به شیوع نسبتاً بالای اختلال یادگیری غیرکلامی می‌توان با اجرای مداخلات آموزشی بهنگام و ارائه خدمات تخصصی از مشکلات رفتاری، تحصیلی و احتمالاً حرفه‌ای آنها در آینده پیشگیری نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Prevalence of Non-Verbal Learning Disorder in Male Students in Karaj City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoume Pourmohamadrezatajrishi 1
  • Maryam Yousefi 2
  • Sahel Hemmati 3
  • Enayatollah Bakhshi 4
2 Department of Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Psychiatry, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Biostatistics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The non-verbal learning disorder is considered as a specific syndrome in learning and reasoning. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of non-verbal learning disorder in primary school male students in Karaj City.
Method: In this descriptive-analytic study, a stratified sampling method was used to select 286 male students who were studying in the 4th, 5th and 6th grades of primary schools in Karaj City. All students were individually screened using Children Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities Scale and 8 students with 30 points and higher in the Scale were diagnosed at-risk to non-verbal learning disorder. A Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd revision)  was administered afterward. Five male students (including 3 persons in 4th and 2 persons in 6th grade respectively) were diagnosed as having non-verbal learning disorder which their verbal intelligence quotient was differed 10 points and higher from their practical intelligence quotient and got 85 points and higher for the total intelligence quotient. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test using SPSS (version 22).
Results: Breafly 1.8% of male students showed nonverbal learning disorder. In fact, 2.6% and 2.4% of male students in 4th and 6th grades  respectively were diagnosed with nonverbal learning disorder.
Conclusion: Given the nearly high prevalence of non-verbal learning disorder in students, early training interventions and providing professional services  is recommended to prevent ongoing behavioral and academic, and probably occupation problems .

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Non-Verbal Learning Disorder
  • Male Students
  • Prevalence
  • Elementary School
  • Nonverbal Learning Disability Scale
 
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