Predicting Substance Use in Adolescents Based on Risk Indices and Individual Protective Preventing, Family, Peers and Location



Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigating the predictability of substance use in adolescents based on individual, family, scholastic, peers, and neighborhoods risk and protective factors.
Method: “Adolescents Substance Use Prevention Scale” was administered upon 698 high schools 14-19 aged students, including 366 boys and 332 girls, who were selected based on the multistage cluster sampling. The collected data was analyzed by binary logistic regression and ANOVA.
Results: Finding showed that individual factors, including impulsive control, acting out of aggressive behavior, inter-intra personal emotional intelligence have significant prediction on students substance use, but school achievement and religious attitude of students did not. The risk of substance use in students who were smoker, was higher than non users. Among family factors, secure attachment to father and mother have significant prediction on students substance use, and the risk of substance use among students, who their family members were substance user was higher than others. Among school and peers factors, friend`s school achievement, friend`s attitude to school, and substance use have significant prediction on student`s substance use, and the risk of substance use in students, who their friends were drug user or smoker was higher than others. The risk of substance use in student`s who had observed drug use behaviors in neighborhoods, was higher than others. There was a significant difference between male and female based on risk and protective of substance use prevention factors.
Conclusion: Regarding to the results, substance use in students is multifactor phenomena, and to have effective preventive intervention, it need to integrate individual, family, school, peers, and neighborhoods factors, simultaneously. Due to the gender difference in substance use risk factors, it should be concern in conducting prevention programs.