The Comparison of Affective Temperament and Early Maladaptive Self-Schemas in Borderline Personality Patients, Bipolar Patients and Normal Individuals



Introduction: There is an unsolved debate on whether borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder should be considered in similar spectrum or in distinct spectrum. The aim of the present study is to further the understanding of the similarities and differences between the two disorders by investigating borderline patients, bipolar patients and normal people in terms of various affective temperaments and maladaptive self-schemas.
Method: The present descriptive- comparative study consisted of 90 people including 30 Borderline personality patients (15 females and 15 males), 30 bipolar patients (15 females and 15 males) and 30 normal individuals (15 females, 15 males) who had been selected by available sampling. For data gathering Demographic properties questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders, The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, The short version of the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire were used in this study. The gathered data is analyzed by SPSS-19 and descriptive statistic indexes, and Multivariate Analysis of Variance.
Results: The present study demonstrated significantly higher mean scores on affective temperaments and 18 early maladaptive self-schemas for the borderline patients, Compared to the bipolar patients and the normal people. Also, the bipolar patients differed significantly from normal people by higher mean scores on the cyclothymic and irritable temperament and most of the early maladaptive self-schemas (Abandonment/ instability, Mistrust/abuse, Social isolation/ alienation, Vulnerability to harm or illness, Enmeshment/ undeveloped self, Entitlement/ grandiosity, Approval-seeking/ recognition-seeking, Punitiveness).
Conclusion: The present study showed that affective temperaments and maladaptive self-schemas are more severe in borderline patients than in bipolar patients. These findings point to Distinction between the two disorders and therefore can be concluded that the two disorders differ from most of the same. Overall, there was a noticeable relationship in the high levels of affective temperaments and maladaptive self-schemas with the borderline personality disorder. Finally, Particular combination of sensitivity affective temperaments and maladaptive self-schemas was relevant with special psychopathology species.