The Effectiveness of Attribution Retraining Intervention on Test Anxiety Level and Obsessional Perfectionism of Female High - school Student with Test anxiety

Document Type : Original Article


1 Psychology department, Payame Noor University, Center of Semnan

2 Semnan University

3 Assistant Professor of university ,Department of Psychology,payame-noor university ,ُُTehran,]ran,Box,19395-3697,Tehran,Iran


Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a attribution retraining programm on the test anxiety level and obsessional perfectionism of the high -school girl students with test anxiety.

Method: In a randomized controled trial design among statistical population consisting all female high-school students of the Semnan high-schools,during 2018 academic year, a total sample of 50 subjects selected  by a cluster-sampling method, and divided randomly to  experimental and control groups. Two standard questionnaires of the research included:1- Friedman Test Anxiety and 2- Hill's Perfectionism Scale.

Results: Our findings revealed significantly reduced mean scores of the obsessional perfectionism and test anxiety of the high-school girls in the experimental group than control. Six subcomponents of perfectionism including: organizing, striving for excelence, need for approval, concern over mistakes,      parental pressure and rumination, as well as, cognitive error  from test xiety were significant. No other  significant component was evident.

Conclusion: It could be mention that the  the attribution retraining intervention  could reduce the test anxiety level, as well as, obsessional perfectionism in the female high-school students and  can help to student's mental health promotion.


1. Calvo MG. Test anxiety and comprehension efficiency. Psychology in the School. 2008; 20: 77-86.
2. Weiner B, Carton JS. Avoidant coping: A mediator of maladaptive perfectionism and test anxiety. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences. 2012; 52: 632-6.
3. Plasen M. Assessing students meta cognitive awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2004; 94(2): 249-59.
4. Capan BE. Relationship among perfectionism, academic procrastination and life satisfaction of university students. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2010; 5: 1665-71.
5-. Matteucci MC. Attributional retraining and achievement goals: An exploratory study on theoretical and empirical relationship. Revue Europeenne De Psychologie Appliquee. 2017; 67: 279-89.
6. Boese GD, Stewart TL, Perry RP, Hamm JM. Assisting failure-prone individuals to navigate achievement transitions using a cognitive motivation treatment (attributional retraining). Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 2013; 43(9): 1946-55.
7. Chang EC, Sanna LJ. Negative attributional style as a moderator of the link between perfectionism and depressive symptom: preliminatory evidence for an integrative model. Journal of counseling Psycology. 2001; 48(4): 490-5.
8. Khosravi M, Ostovar Z, Azami S. Test anxiety and its coping strategies, Tehran: Elm; 2012.
9. Dadsetan P. Measuring and treating test anxiety. Journal of Psychology. 1997; 1(1): 31-60.
10. Alshawaa H, Alhayek S. Effects of using computer in learning among students anxiety. Journal of Damascus Psychology in the Schools. 2009; 37: 535-45.
11. Kassim MAB, Hanafi SRBM, Hancock DR. Test anxiety and its consequences on academic performance among university students. Journal of Advances in pcychology Reserch. 2008; 53: 75-95.
12. Mahmood A, Iqbal S. Difference of student anxiety level towards English as a foreign language subject and their academic achievement. International Journal of Academic Reserch. 2010; 2(6): 199-203.
13. Fong SF, Osamah AM. Modality and redundancy effects on music theory learning among pupils of different anxiety level. International journal of Human and Social Sciences. 2010; 5(9): 589-97.
14. Sarason IG. Anxiety, self-preoccupation and attention. Anxiety Research. An International Journal. 1988; 1: 3-8.
15. LeBeau RT, Glenn D, Liao B, Beesdo-BaumK Ollendik T, Creske GC. Specific phobiai a review of DSM-TV specific phobia and preliminary recommendation for DSM-V. Depression and Anxiety. 2010; 27(2): 148-67.
16. Latas M, Pantic M, Oberadovic D. Analysis of test anxiety in medical students. Medicine ski Pregled. 2010; 63(11): 863-6.
17- Larson HA, Yoder A, Johnson C, Ramahi ME, Sung J, Washburn F. Test anxiety and relaxation training in third-grade students. Journal of Eastern Education. 2010; 39(1): 13-22.
18. Denizli S. The role of hope and study skill in predicting test anxiety levels of university students [Dissertation]. Ankara, Turkey: Middle east Technical University. 2004.
19. Ergen T. Effective intervention of test anxiety reduction. Journal of school psychology. 2002; 24: 313-28.
20. Sherry SB, Stoeber J, Ramasubbu C. Perfectionism explains variance in self –defeating behaviors beyond self-criticism: Evidence from a cross-national sample. Personality and Individual Difference. 2016; 95: 196-9.
21. Kawamura K, Hunt S, Frost R. Perfectionism, Anxiety, And Depression. Cognitive Therapy And Research. 2001; 25: 203-393.
22. Hewitt PL, Flett GL, Besser A, Sherry SB, McGee BJ. Perfectionism is multidimensional: A reply to Shafran, Cooper, and Fairburn. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2003; 41: 1221-36.
23. Hewitt PL, Flett GL. Dimensions of perfectionism in unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1991; 100: 98-101.
24. Stoeber J. The model of perfectionism: A critical comment and some suggestions. Personality and Individual Differences. 2009; 32: 380-3.
25. Siegle D, Schuler PA. Perfectionism differences in gifted middle school students. Academic Search Premier. 2000; 23: 39-44.
26. Blankstein KR, Lumley CH, Crawford A. perfectionism, hopelessness, and suicide ideation: Revisions to diathesis-stress and specific vulnerability model. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive Behavior Therapy. 2007; 25: 279-319.
27. Conroy DE, Metzler JN. Patterns of self-talk associated with different forms of competitive anxiety.Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. 2004; 26: 69-89.
28. Besharat M. Perfectionism and interpersonal problems. Clinical Psychology & Personality. 2004; 1(7): 1-8.
29. Metallidou P, Valchou A. Motivational beliefs, cognitive engagement, and achievement in language and mathematics in elementary school children. International Journal of Psychology. 2007; 42(1): 2-15.
30. Yahyaee M, Pourmohamad Reza-Tajrishi M, Sajedi F, Biglarian A. The effect of attribution retraining group program on depression of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Developmental Psychology (Iranian Psychologists). 2014; 10(39): 263-73.
31. Stoeber J, Becker C. Perfectionism, achievement motives, and attribution of success and failure in femalee soccer players. International Journal of Psychology. 2008; 43(6): 980–7.
32. Genet H. Causal Attribution of Students to their Academic Achievement. International Journal of Science and Research. 2016; 5(3): 2226-9.
33. Sukariyah MB, Assaad G. The effect of attribution retraining on the academic achievement of high school students in mathematics. Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2015; 177: 345-51.
34. Ciarrochi J, Heaven PCL, Davies F. The impact of hope, self-esteem, and attributional style on adolescents’ school grades and emotional well-being, A longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality. 2007; 41: 1161-78.
35. Tabatabaee SM, Alboyeh G, Jahan E, Tabatabaee KhS. The effectiveness of attributive retraining on intelligence beliefs and academic achievement in high school failed students. Journal of School Psychology. 2014; 3(1): 68-82.
36. Najafi Fard T, Abbasi S, Pour Sadoghi A, Yousefi S, Mohammadi Malek Abadi A, Delavar Kasmaei H. Effectiveness of attributive retraining on epileptic male children’s mental health. Shenakht Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry. 2016; 2(4): 69-81.
37. Baezat F, Sadeghi MS, Izadifard R, Robenzadeh Sh. Validation and standardization of persian version of Friedben Test Anxiety Scale (FTA). Quarterly Journal of Psychological studies. 2012; 8(1): 51-66.
38. Hill RW, Huelsman TJ, Furr RM, Kibler J, Vicente BB, Kennedy C. A new measure of perfectionism: The Perfectionism Inventory. Journal of Personal Assessments. 2004; 82(1): 80-91.
39. Jamshidy B, Hosseinchari M, Haghighat Sh, Razmi MR. Validation of new measure of perfectionism. Journal of Behavioral Sciences. 2009; 3(1): 35-43.
40. Tamannaifar MR, Mansoori Nik A. Explaining academic procrastination based on personality traits, perfectionism and student satisfaction. Journal of Iranian Higher Education. 2014; 5(4): 165-85.
41. Tamannaifar MR, Sedighi Arfaee F, Moghaddasin Z. Explanation of the academic procrastination based on adaptive and maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism and locus of control. New Educational Approaches. 2012; 7(2): 141-68.
42. Yazdani F, Soleimani B. Relationship between Test Anxiety and Academic Performance among Midwifery Students. Journal of Health System Research. 2012; 7(6): 1178-87.
43. Heidarian A, Nouroozi M. Prediction of test anxiety based on the excitement and perfectionism of students. Journal of counseling and psychotherapy. 2014; 19: 139-54.
44. Conroy DE, Kaye MP, FiFer AM. Cognitive links between fear of failure and perfectionism. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. 2007; 25(4): 237-53.