The Discriminant Analysis of Individuals with Borderline Personality Syndrome from Individuals Without Borderline Personality Syndrome Based on Attachment Style, Defense Mechanisms and Object relations

Document Type : Original Article


1 semnan

2 Semnan University


Introduction: This study aimed to assess the discriminant analysis of individuals with borderline personality syndrome from individuals without borderline personality syndrome based on attachment style, defense mechanisms, and object relations.
Method: This study was conducted with a expos-facto design. Statistical society included undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University of Bojnourd who were studying in the first semester of the academic year 2018-2019. A sample of 44 subjects with  borderline personality syndromes and 44 normal persons were selected based on the inclusion criteria and answered the research questionnaires.
Results: The results showed that individuals with borderline personality disorder syndrome can be discriminated from individuals without borderline personality syndrome based on avoidant and ambivalent attachment, underdeveloped and neurotic defense mechanisms, social incompetence, introversion, insecurity and alienation.
Conclusion: People with borderline personality syndrome have underdeveloped mechanisms, insecure attachment style and impared object relations. The screening and evaluation of individuals to prevent further pathology, as well as, consideration in counseling and psychotherapy sessions is necessary.


1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub; 2013 May 22.
2. Gøtzsche-Astrup O, Moskowitz A. Personality disorders and the DSM-5: Scientific and extra-scientific factors in the maintenance of the status quo. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2016 Feb;50(2):119-27.
3. Brüne M. Borderline Personality DisorderWhy ‘fast and furious’?. Evolution, medicine, and public health. 2016 Jan 1;2016(1):52-66.
4. Tabar, M. S. The Role of Defense Styles and Defense Mechanisms in the Prediction of Borderline Personality Features in Non-clinical Samples. International Journal of Behavioural Science. 2017: 11(4): 151-147.
5. Baryshnikov I, Joffe G, Koivisto M, Melartin T, Aaltonen K, Suominen K, Rosenström T, Näätänen P, Karpov B, Heikkinen M, Isometsä E. Relationships between self-reported childhood traumatic experiences, attachment style, neuroticism and features of borderline personality disorders in patients with mood disorders. Journal of affective disorders. 2017 Mar 1;210:82-9.
6. Mohammadzadeh A, Mahdavi N, Ahmadi TahourSoltani M. The Comparison of Borderline Traits among Schizophrenic patients, theirs First Degree Relatives and Normal People. Int J Behav Sci. 2016;10(4):162-6.
7. Mosquera D, Gonzalez A, Leeds AM. Early experience, structural dissociation, and emotional dysregulation in borderline personality disorder: the role of insecure and disorganized attachment. Borderline personality disorder and emotion dysregulation. 2014 Dec;1(1):15.
8. Cramer P. Personality, personality disorders, and defense mechanisms. Journal of personality. 1999 Jun;67(3):535-54.
9. Iwanicka K, Gerhant A, Olajossy M. Psychopathological symptoms, defense mechanisms and time perspectives among subjects with alcohol dependence (AD) presenting different patterns of coping with stress. PeerJ. 2017 Aug 4;5:e3576.
10. Granieri A, La Marca L, Mannino G, Giunta S, Guglielmucci F, Schimmenti A. The relationship between defense patterns and DSM-5 maladaptive personality domains. Frontiers in psychology. 2017 Nov 2;8:1926.
11. Kramer U, de Roten Y, Perry JC, Despland JN. Beyond splitting: Observer-rated defense mechanisms in borderline personality disorder. Psychoanalytic Psychology. 2013 Jan;30(1):3.
12. de Francisco Carvalho L, Reis AM, Pianowski G. Investigating Correlations Between Defence Mechanisms and Pathological Personality Characteristics. Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría. 2018 Feb 10.
13. Rahmatian F, Hashemian S, Borjali A, Habibi M. The relationship between individual perception of father parenting and subject relationships and defensive mechanisms. Journal of Military medicine. 2015; 5(1): 29-17.
14. Buchheim A, Diamond D. Attachment and Borderline Personality Disorder. Psychiatric Clinics. 2018 Dec 1;41(4):651-68.
15. Stern BL, Caligor E, Hörz-Sagstetter S, Clarkin JF. An Object-Relations Based Model for the Assessment of Borderline Psychopathology. Psychiatric Clinics. 2018 Dec 1;41(4):595-611.
16. Pourshahriar H, Alizade H, Rajaeinia K. Childhood Emotional Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder Features: The Mediating Roles of Attachment Style and Emotion Regulation. IJPCP. 2018; 24 (2):148-163
17. Jahanbakhsh M, Amiri S, Molavi H, Bahadori M. Relationship between attachment problems of girls with mothers attachment style. Journal of clinical psychology. 2010; 2(3): 23-15.
18. Andrews G, Singh M, Bond M. The Defense Style Questionnaire. Journal of Nervous and mental Disease. 1993 Apr.
19. Fathi A, Dastani M. Psychological tests: Personality assessment and mental health. Tehran, Besat.
20. Roobanzadeh S, Rasoolzadeh K, Ghorbani N, Abedin A. Investigating theeffect of self-knowledge process, the level of commitment and the components of thematic relationships on the identity formation of adolescents. Sadra medical science Journal. 2016; 4(4):276-267.
21. Huprich SK, Greenberg RP. Advances in the assessment of object relations in the 1990s. Clinical Psychology Review. 2003 Oct 1;23(5):665-98.
22. Basharpour S, Toluee A, Narimani M, Atadokht A. The relationship between emotional processing stylesand mood nougat and symptoms of borderline
personality disorder. Journal of Babol university of medical sciences. 2014; 16(7): 62-55.
23. Mohammadzadeh a, Godarzi M, Taghavi M, molazadeh J. Iinvestigating the factor structure, validity, reliability and normalization of borderline personality scale in shiraz university students. Quarterly Journal of mental health. 2005; 7(28): 89-75.
24. Badoud D, Prada P, Nicastro R, Germond C, Luyten P, Perroud N, Debbané M. Attachment and reflective functioning in women with borderline personality disorder. Journal of personality disorders. 2018 Feb;32(1):17-30.
25. Choi-Kain LW, Fitzmaurice GM, Zanarini MC, Laverdière O, Gunderson JG. The relationship between self-reported attachment styles, interpersonal dysfunction, and borderline personality disorder. The Journal of nervous and mental disease. 2009 Nov 1;197(11):816-21.
26. Amani R, Majzubi M. Forecast of identity styles based on attachment styles. Journal of clinical psychology and personality. 2011; 2(5): 24-13.
27. Bandelow B, Krause J, Wedekind D, Broocks A, Hajak G, Rüther E. Early traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history, and birth risk factors in patients with borderline personality disorder and healthy controls. Psychiatry research. 2005 Apr 15;134(2):169-79.
28. Eyni S, Narimani M, Atadokht A, Basharpoor S, sadeghi F. Comparison of the efficacy of cognitive-analytic-based therapy and cognitive-theraputic therapy on the improvement of the relationship between subjects with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Payesh. 2018; 17(3): 287-275.
29. Hanayi N, Mahmood Alilo M, Bakhshipoor A, Akbari E. Schematic mentality, child abuse experience and attachment styles in borderline personality disorder. Journal of clinical psychology and personality. 2013; 13(12): 118-101.
30. Carlson EA, Egeland B, Sroufe LA. A prospective investigation of the development of borderline personality symptoms. Development and psychopathology. 2009 Nov;21(4):1311-34.
31. Mohammadzadeh A. Explaining schizotypy borderline traits based on Iran's attachment styles and fundamental traits. Journal of clinical psychology and personality psychiatry. 2012; 18(4): 330-322.
32. Perry JC, Presniak MD, Olson TR. Defense mechanisms in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders. Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes. 2013 Mar;76(1):32-52.
33. Hibbard S, Porcerelli J. Further validation for the Cramer defense mechanism manual. Journal of Personality Assessment. 1998 Jun 1;70(3):460-83.
34. Koenigsberg HW, Harvey PD, Mitropoulou V, New AS, Goodman M, Silverman J, Serby M, Schopick F, Siever LJ. Are the interpersonal and identity disturbances in the borderline personality disorder criteria linked to the traits of affective instability and impulsivity?. Journal of personality disorders. 2001 Aug 1;15(4):358-70.
35. Cierpiałkowska L, Marszał M, Pieniążek M. Defensive functioning in the individuals with the borderline personality organization in the light of empirical research. Polish Journal of Applied Psychology. 2012;10(1):7-21.
36. Eurelings-Bontekoe EH, Luyten P, IJssennagger M, van Vreeswijk M, Koelen J. Relationship between personality organization and Young’s cognitive model of personality pathology. Personality and Individual Differences. 2010 Aug 1;49(3):198-203.
37. Imanzad M, Atabeygi G, Mosavi R, Najafi N, Khodadadi Z. Impact of religious attitude and spirituality on defense mechanisms. Journal of Islamic Azad University of medical sciences. 2013; 23(4): 58-54.
38. Sinha BK, Watson DC. Predicting personality disorder traits with the Defense Style Questionnaire in a normal sample. Journal of Personality Disorders. 1999 Sep;13(3):281-6.
39. Clarkin JF, Lenzenweger MF, Yeomans F, Levy KN, Kernberg OF. An object relations model of borderline pathology. Journal of personality disorders. 2007 Oct;21(5):474-99.
40. Farjad M, Mohammadi N, Rahimi C, Hadianfard H. Relationship between personality organization and defense mechanisms. Journal of psychology.2013; 17(3): 32-18.
41. Inder ML, Crowe MT, Moor S, Luty SE, Carter JD, Joyce PR. “I actually don't know who I am”: The impact of bipolar disorder on the development of self. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes. 2008 Jun;71(2):123-33.
42. Kernberg OF. Identity: Recent findings and clinical implications. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly. 2006 Oct 1;75(4):969-1004.
43. Lewis KC, Meehan KB, Cain NM, Wong PS, Clemence AJ, Stevens J, Tillman JG. Impairments in object relations and chronicity of suicidal behavior in individuals with borderline personality disorder. Journal of personality disorders. 2016 Feb;30(1):19-34.
44. Westen, D., Ludolph, P., Lerner, H., Ruffins, S., & Wiss, F. C. (1990). Object relations in borderline adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry29(3), 338-348.