Structural Relationships of Psychological Capitalism and Self-Determination with Test Anxiety: The Mediating role was Academic Engagement and Hardiness

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD student in Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran


Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the structural relationships of psychological capital and self-determination with test anxiety: the mediating role was academic engagement and hardiness.
Method: The research design was correlational. The statistical population was all high school students in Semnan city in 2018-2019. The research samples were 857. Data collection tools included Ahvaz Test Anxiety Inventory, Luthans et all Psychological Capital Questionnaire, Deci Ryan Self-Determination Inventory, Fredericks et all Academic Engagement Scale, and Kobasa Hardiness Questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS and LISREL software and structural equation modeling.
Results: The latent variables of psychological capital and self-determination, academic engagement and hardiness had markers. The findings of the measurement model showed that all marker variables were significantly loaded on their latent structure. The results of the structural model also showed that the variables of psychological capital, self-determination, hardiness and academic engagement have negative, direct and significant effects on test anxiety. Also, psychological capital and self-determination have negative, indirect and significant negative and significant effects on test anxiety with mediating of academic involvement and hardiness. This model, overall, predicted the variance of test anxiety as 0.49.
Conclusion: The role of predictor variables can be used to control and the reduce test anxiety according to the obtained results.


  1. منابع

    1. Farooqi YN, Ghanl R, Spielberger CD. Gender differences in test anxiety and academic performance of medical students. Inter J of Psy and behave Sciences 2012; 2: 38-43.
    2. Salend SJ. Addressing test anxiety. Teaching exceptional children 2011; 44(2): 58-68.
    3. Boparai JK, Gupta AK, Singh A, Matreja PS, Khanna PML & Garg P. Impact of test anxiety on psychomotor functions and satisfaction with life of medical undergraduates during second professional curriculum. Edu in Medicine J 2013; 5(4): 6-11.
    4. Segool NK, Carlson JS, Goforth AN, Von Der Embse N & Barterian JA. Heightened test anxiety among young children: elementary school students’ anxious responses to high-stakes testing. Psychology in the Schools 2013; 50(5): 489-499.
    5. Jing HE. Analysis on the Relationship among test Anxiety, self-concept and academic competency. J us- chines Foreign Language 2007; 5(1): 48-51.
    6. Rost DH, Schermer FJ. In D. H. Rost (Hrsg.). Handwörterbuch Pädagogische Psychologie (S. 405-413. erweiterte und überarbeitete Auflage). Weinheim: PVU Psychologie Verlags Union. 2001.
    7. Spielberger CD, Anton WD, Bedell J. The Nature and Treatment of Test Anxiety. In Emotions and Anxiety: New Concepts, Methods, and Applications (pp. 317-344).
    8. Bhatta K & Subba S. Test Anxiety: Prevalence and Correlates. International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review 2018; 6(8): 74-82.
    9. Galla BM, Wood JJ, Tsukayama E, Har K, Chiu AW, Langer DA. A longitudinal multilevel model analysis of the within-person and between-person effect of effortful engagement and academic self-efficacy on academic performance. J Sch Psychol 2014; 52(3): 295-308.
    10. Luthans F, Youssef CM, Avolio BJ. Psychological capital: Developing the human competitive edge. Oxford University. 2007.
    11. Norman SM, Avey JB, Nimnicht JL, Pigeon NG. The Interactive Effects of Psychological Capital and Organizational Identity on Employee Organizational Citizenship and Deviance Behaviors. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 2010; 17(4): 380–39.
    12. Ahmad Bhat S. Psychological capital: A review of literature. National Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development 2017; 2(2): 230-232.
    13. Comanaru RS, Noels AN. Self-Determination, Motivation, and the Learning of Chinese as a Heritage Language. The Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue comedienne des langue's volantes 2009; 66(131): 131-158.
    14. Ariani DW. Self-determined motivation, achievement goals and anxiety of economic and business students in Indonesia. Educational Research and Reviews 2017; 12(23): 1154-1166.
    15. Soenens B, Vansteenkiste M. A theoretical upgrade of the concept of parental psychological control: Proposing new insights on the basis of self-determination theory. Developmental Review 2010; 30(1): 74-99.
    16. Deci EL, Ryan RM. Self-determination theory. Handbook of theories of social psychology 2011; 1: 416-433.
    17. Reeve J, Tseng M. Agency as a fourth aspect of student engagement during learning activities. Contemporary Educational Psychology 2011; 36: 257–267.
    18. Appleton JJ, Christenson SL, Furlong MJ. Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools 2008; 45(5): 45-62.
    19. Cho MH, Cho YJ. Instructor scaffolding for interaction and students' academic engagement in online learning: Mediating role of perceived online class goal structures. The Internet and Higher Education 2014; 21: 25-30.
    20. Kocabas, S., Ozfidan, B., & Burlbaw, L. M. The Development of a Scale to Measure Teacher's Self-Efficacy and Confidence in Teaching Compulsory K-12 Theology Courses. Journal of Education and Learning 2018; 7(4); 92-102.
    21. Rodrigues R, Carochinho J, Rendeiro M. The impact of positive psychological capital on the psychological distress of primary and secondary education teachers. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences 2018; 28: 4-13.
    22. Selcuk D. The Relationship between Psychological Capital and Stress, Anxiety, Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Job Involvement. Eurasian J of Educational Research 2018; 75: 137-153.
    23. Kormas C, Karamali G, Anagnostopoulos F. Attachment Anxiety, Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Depressive Symptoms in University Students: A Mediation Analysis Approach. International. J of Psychological Studies 2014; 6(2): 1-10.
    24. Kovács IK, Borcsa M. The relationship between anxiety, somatic symptoms and hardiness in adolescence. Romanian J of Applied Psychology 2017; 19(2): 42-49.
    25. Tian L, Chen H, Huebner E. The longitudinal relationships between basic psychological need satisfaction at school and school-related subjective well-being in adolescents. Social Indicators Research 2014; 119: 353-372.
    26. Kline RB. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. NY: Guilford press. 2010.
    27. Abolghasemi A, Asadi Moghadam A, Najarian B, Shokrkon H. Construction and Validation to teast anxiety scale in middle school, 1995; 3(3-4): 61-74.
    28. Bahadori Khosroshahi J, Hashemi Nosratabad T, Babapour Kheirodin J. The relationship of psychological capital with socialc apitalamong students of Tabriz universiy. Journal of Research & Health, 2012; 2: 145 -153.
    29. Hejazi, Elahe; Khezri Azar, Heiman and Amani, Javad. Students' perception of teacher support for English autonomy and self-efficacy: The mediating role of basic psychological needs. Journal of Teaching and Learning Studies, 2011; 4 (1), 51-29.
    30. Fredricks JA, Blumenfeld PC, Paris AH. School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of educational research 2004; 74(1): 59-109.
    31. Talebi, Saeed; Zare, Hussein; Rastegar, Ahmad and Hosseinpour, Amin. Factor structure of the Friedrix Academic Involvement Scale (cognitive, behavioral, and motivational). Research in Educational Systems, 2013; 8 (24), 16-1.
    32. Kobasa SC. Personality and resistance to illness. Am J Community Psychol. 1979; 7(4):413-23.
    33. Besharat, Mohammad Ali. Hard work and ways to deal with stress. Personality Studies, 2004; 3 (2), 129-109.
    34. Trigueros R, Padilla AM, Aguilar-Parra JM, Rocamora P, Morales-Gázquez M, López-Liria R. The Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Resilience, Test Anxiety, Academic Stress and the Mediterranean Diet. A Study with University Students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2020; 17(71): 2-12.
    35. David W, Putwain AL, Daly Chamberlain S, Sadreddini S. Academically buoyant students are less anxious about and perform better in high-stakes examinations. British J of Educational Psychology 2015; 85(3): 263-274.
    36. Bandura A, Locke E. Negative self-efficacy and goal effects revisited. J of Applied Psychology 2003; 88(1): 87-99.
    37. Krispenz A, Gort C, Schültke L and Dickhäuser O. How to Reduce Test Anxiety and Academic Procrastination through Inquiry of Cognitive Appraisals: A Pilot Study Investigating the Role of Academic Self-Efficacy. Front. Psychol 2019; 10:1917. 
    38. Quested E, Bosch JA, Burns VE, Cumming J, Ntoumanis N, Duda JL. Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction, Stress-Related Appraisals, and Dancers’ Cortisol and Anxiety Responses. J of Sport & Exercise Psychology 2011; 33: 828- 846.
    39. Sawan F. The Relationship between motivation and autonomy: A Study of Libyan University English Majors. Open science J 2018; 1(4): 45-55.
    40. Krispenz, A., and Dickhäuser, O. Effects of an inquiry-based short intervention on state test anxiety in comparison to alternative coping strategies. Front. Psychol 2018; 9: 201-214.
    41. Özgan E, Karakılıç HF. The Relationship between Test Anxiety and Academic Performance. Electronic International Journal of Education, Arts, and Science 2019; 4(10); 1-13.
    42. Ilhan, F., Ozfidan, B., & Yilmaz, S. Home Visit Effectiveness on Students’Classroom Behavior and Academic Achievement. Journal of Social Studies Education Research 2019; 10(1): 61-80.
    43. Mehdipour F, Gholamali Lavasani M, Hejazi E. Structural Modeling on the Relationship between Basic Psychological Needs, Academic Engagement, and Test Anxiety. J of Edu and Learning 2016; 5(4): 43-48.
    44. Mehdipour F, Shalbaf A, Gholamali Lavasani M. Agentic Engagement and Test Anxiety: The Mediatory Role of the Basic Psychological Needs. 2018. SAGE Open: DOI: 10.1177/2158244018772884.
    45. Sandvik AM, Hansen AL, Hystad SW, Johnsen BH, Bartone PT. Psychological hardiness as a mediator of the psychopathy–anxiety relationship in a prison setting. Personality and Individual Differences 2015; 72: 30-34.
    46. Spiridon K, Evangelia K. Exploring relationships between academic hardiness, academic stressors and achievement in university undergraduates. NHSA Dialog 2015; 1(1): 53–73.
    47. Maddi S, Khoshaba D, Persico M, Harvey J, Bleeker F. The personality construct of hardiness: relationships with comprehensive test of personality and psychopathology. J of Research in Personality 2002; 36: 72-85.
    48. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM5). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association. 2013.
    49. Mohammad Idris A, Manganaro M. Relationships between psychological capital, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment in the Saudi oil and petrochemical industries. J of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 2017; 27(4): 251-269.
    50. Janet C, Simons J, Buitendach H. Psychological capital, work engagement and organizational commitment amongst call center employees in South Africa. SA J of Industrial Psychology 2013; 39(2): 55-68.
    51. Mullikin EA, Bakken LL, Betz NE. Assessing research self-efficacy in physician-scientists: the clinical research appraisal inventory. Journal of Career Assessment 2007; 15(3): 367-387.
    52. Freer E, Evans P. Psychological needs satisfaction and value in students’ intentions to study music in high school. Psychol. Music 2018; 46: 881-895.
    53. Raufelder D, Kittler F, Braun SR, La¨tsch A, Wilkinson RP, Hoferichter F. The interplay of perceived stress, self-determination and school engagement in adolescence. School Psychology Inter 2014; 45: 1-16.
    54. Erickson ASG, Noonan PM, Zheng C, Brussow The relationship between self-determination and academic achievement for adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2015; 36: 45-54.