Development and Effectiveness Evaluation of a Group Treatment Package based on Transactional Analysis and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Aspects of Self-compassion in Girls with Emotional Breakdown Experience

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD Student in Counseling, Department of Counseling, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Educational Psychology, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran-Iran,

3 Professor, Department of Measurement, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran-Iran,

4 Professor, Department of Counseling, Kharazmi University, Tehran-Iran

5 Assistant Professor, Department of Counseling, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: The aim of present research was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a group treatment package based on transactional analysis and acceptance and commitment therapy on self-compassion components in girls with emotional breakdown experience.
Method: A mixed method was applied to develop the educational package and semi-experimental design were used to examine the instructional intervention. The study population consisted of all students with emotional breakdown in Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch in 2020. A total sample of 30 subjects selected by available sampling method and randomly divided to experimental (n=15) and control (n=15) groups and the inclusion/exclusion criteria were controled for. The experimental group received 8 session of  researcher made package, wherase the control group remained in the waiting list. The Neff Self-compassion Questionnaire was administered in the pretest posttest and followup stages and extracted data were analyzed by a covariance statistical method.
Results: The findings showed significant differences between two groups after intervention and in followup(p<0.01). Decreased means of self-judgment, extreme identification and isolation, as well as , increased means of self-kindness, mindfulness and human commonalities observed in  experimental group subjects than control.
Conclusion: It could be concluded that the developed package was effective and could be apply to girls with a history of traumatic emotional breakdown.


  1. منابع

    1. Yalom, Arvin. Existential psychotherapy. Translated by Sepideh Habib. Tehran: Ney, 1980.
    2. Glasser, William. Choice Theory: An Introduction to the Psychology of Hope. Translated by Ali Sahebi. Shadow of Speech Publications. (Date of publication of the work in the original language, 1999.
    3. Aman Elahi, Abbas., Trudast, Kowsar. And Aslani, Khalid. Prediction of depression based on self-compassion components in female students experiencing emotional failure in Ahvaz universities. Clinical Psychology. 2015; (2) 8, 88-77.
    4. Nelsen, J. Erwin, C. & Delzer, J. Positive discipline for single parents: Nurturing, cooperation, respect and joy inyour single-parent family. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing. 1999.
    5. (Yousefi, Rahim. Prevalence and role of demographic and psychological factors (early maladaptive schemas, personality traits and attachment styles) in predicting emotional failure in students of Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan. Master Thesis. Family counseling. Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tabriz. 2013.
    6. Izadi, Razieh and Abedi, Mohammad Reza. Acceptance and commitment based therapy. Tehran: Jangal and Kavoshiar Publications. 2015.
    7. Salarifar, Mohammad Hussain And Pouratemad, Hamidreza. The Relationship between Metacognitive Beliefs and Depression and Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Scientific Research. 2010; 13 (4): 29-38
    8. Barnard, L, K., & Curry, J.F. Self-compassion: Conceptualizations, correlates, & interventions, Review of general psychology. 2011; 15 (4), 289.
    9. Leary, M. R., Tate, E. B., Adams, C. E., Allen, A. B., & Hancock, J. Self-compassion and reactions to unpleasant self-relevant events: The implications of treating oneself kindly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2007; 92(5), 887-904.
    10. Shaykh al-Islami, Ali and Mohammadi, Nasim. The effect of self-education - cognitive compassion on mental health (physicalization, anxiety, social dysfunction, depression) of women heads of households. Journal of Consulting Research. 2019; 18 (70): 83-104
    11. MacBeth, A., Gumley, A. Exploring compassion: A meta-analysis of the association between self-compassion and psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review. 2012; 32, 545 552
    12. Hollis-Walker L, Colosimo K. Mindfulness, self-compassion, and happiness in non-meditators: A theoretical and empirical examination. Personality and Individual Differences. 2011; 50:222–227. 
    13. Neff, KD; Rude, SS & Kirkpatrick, K. An examination of self compassion in relation to positive psychological functioning and personality traits. J Res Personal. 2007; (41),908–916.
    14. Neff, K. D. The role of self-compassion in development: A healthier way to relate to oneself. Human Development. 2009; 52, 211-214.
    15. Neff, K.D., Vonk, R. Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: two different ways of relating to oneself. J Pers. 2009; 77(1):23-50.
    16. Neff KD, Kirkpatrick KL, Rude SS. Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning. 2007;41:139–154
    17. Neff, K. D., & McGhee, P. Selfcompassion and psychological resilience among adolescents and young adults. Self and Identity. 2010; 9, 225 - 240.
    18. Lee DA. The perfect nurturer: a model to develop a compassionate mind within the context of cognitive therapy. In Compassion: Conceptualisations, Research and use in Psychotherapy (ed P Gilbert):2005; 326-51. Brunner-Routledge.
    19. Baer, R.A., Lykens, E.L.B., Peters, J.R. Mindfulness and self-compassion as predictors of psychological wellbeing in long-term meditators and matched no meditators. The Journal of Positive Psychology. 2012; 7:230–238. 
    20. Blutha, K. & Blantonb, P. W. The influence of self-compassion on emotional well-being among early and older adolescent males and females. J Posit Psychol. 2015; 10(3): 219–230.
    21. Shaykh al-Islami, Ali; Qamari Kiwi, Hossein and Mohammadi, Nasim. The effectiveness of cognitive self-compassion training on perceived self-efficacy of women heads of households under the supervision of Imam Khomeini Relief Committee. Social Work Quarterly. 2015; 5 (2): 13-19.
    22. Yarnell, L. M., & Neff, K. D. Self-compassion, interpersonal conflict resolutions, and well-being. Sell and Identity. 2013; 12(2), 146-159.
    23. Raes, F. The effect of self-compassion on the development of depression symptoms in a non-clinical sample. Mindfulness. 2011; 2(1), 33-36.
    24. Linehan, M. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. Guilford PressMace, C. Mindfulness in psychotherapy: an introduction. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. 2007; 13: 147-54.
    25. Segal, Z., Williams, J.M.G., & Teasdale, J. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression. A new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford. 2002.
    26. Wells, A. GAD, Meta‐cognition, and Mindfulness: An Information Processing Analysis. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 2002; 9(1), 95- 100.
    27. Health, stomach; When; Ahmad Reza; And Al-Hayari, Talat. The effect of communication skills training using reciprocal behavior analysis method on reducing marital conflict. Applied Psychology. 2016; Volume I, Number 3: 42-29.
    28. Farhangi, Farhang and Agha Mohammadian, Hamidreza. The effect of group psychotherapy with reciprocal behavior analysis approach on coping styles with adolescent stress. Educational and Psychological Studies. 2005; 7 (2), 41-62.
    29. Sadeghi,; Ahmadi,; Bahrami,; Etemad,; and Salahian. Evaluation of the effectiveness of cross-analysis training on self-concept of high school students in Haminshahr. Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Consulting, Growth and Dynamics. Tehran: Al-Zahra University. 2008.
    30. Jansen JE, Morris EMJ. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Early Psychosis: A Case Series. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. 2017;24(2):187-99.
    31. Gilbert P. The origins and nature of compassion focused therapy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2014; 53: 6-41.
    32. Astronomer, Arefeh and Aga Yousefi, Alireza. The Effectiveness of Group Psychotherapy Analysis of Interaction Behavior on Tempting Beliefs and Attachment Styles and Cognitive Regulation in Addicts Leaving. Journal of Addiction Research,. 2014; (34), 123-144.
    33. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K., & Wilson, K. G. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford Press. 1999.
    34. Hayes, S. C., Wilson, K. G., Gifford, E. V., Follette, V. M., & Strosahl, K. Experiential avoidance and behavioral disorders. A functional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1996; 64, 1152-1168.
    35. Hayes, S. C.; Luoma, J. B.; Bond, F. W.; Masuda, A. & Lillis, J. Acceptance and commitment therapy: model, processes and outcomes. Behavior Research Therapy,. 2006; 44(1): 1-25.
    36. Arch, J. J., Craske, M. G. Laboratory stressors in dinically anxious and non-anxious individuals. The moderating role of mindfulness. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2010; 48, 495-505.
    37. Sadeghian, Abbas; Fakhri, Mohammad Kazem and Hassanzadeh, Ramadan. The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment training on self-esteem and psychological capital of children of divorce. Social Health. 2018; 6 (3), 294-304.
    38. Ghadmpour, Ezatullah; Rashidi, Farzaneh; Yousef Vand, Mehdi; Enayati, Bahar and Maleki, Sobhan. The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment-based therapy in changing the level of self-compassion and emotional regulation in couples with depression. Journal of Psychological Studies. 2018; 15 (1), 7.
    39. Manavi, Remina; Soltani, Amanullah; Zayn al-Dini, Zahra and Razavi Nemat Elahi, Vida Sadat. The effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) on increasing self-compassion and tolerance in students with social anxiety disorder. Disability Studies. 2017; 8 (14), 63.
    40. Hooman, Haidar. Knowledge of scientific method. Tehran: Organization for the Study and Compilation of University Humanities Books (Samat), 2007.
    41. Akbari, Ibrahim; Khanjani, Zeinab; Azimi, Zeinab; Poursharifi, Hamid; And Alilo, Majid Mahmoud. The effectiveness of reciprocal behavior analysis therapy on personality states, self-esteem and clinical symptoms of people with emotional failure. Psychological methods and models, second year, number eight:2011; 21-1.
    42. Neff, K. D Development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity. 2003; 2, 223–250.
    43. Basharpour Sajjad, Issazadegan Ali.The role of self-compassion and forgiveness personality traits in predicting the severity of students' depression. Behavioral Sciences Research. Issue: 2012;10, 6 (27), 452
    44. Prochaska, James and Norcross, John. Theories of psychotherapy (psychotherapy systems). Translated by Yahya Seyed Mohammadi (2013). Fifth Edition, Tehran: Ravan. 2007.
    45. Rajabi, Gholamreza, Abbasi, Ghodratollah. The study of the relationship between self-critical social anxiety and fear of failure with internalized fear in students, Clinical Psychology Research and Counseling. 2011; 1, 171-182.
    46. Williams, L. M. G., Duggan, D. S., Crane, C., Fennell, M. J. V. Mandfulness –based Cognitive 1-210.therapy for prevention of recurrence of suicidal behavior. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2012; 6(2): 201-210.
    47. Forman EM, Herbert JD. New directions in cognitive behavior therapy: Acceptance-based therapies. General principles and empirically supported techniques of cognitive behavior therapy. 2009:77-101.
    48. Sadeghi, M., Hezardastan, F., Ahmadi, A., Bahrami, F., Etemadi, O., & Fatehizadeh, M. (2011). The Effect of Training Through Transactional Analysis Approach on Couples, Communication Patterns. World Applied Sciences Journal, 12 (8): 1337-1341.
    49. Mace, C. Mindfulness in psychotherapy: an introduction. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. 2007; 13: 147-54.
    50. Kazemi, Zeinab; Neshat Doost, Hamid Taher; Kajbaf, Mohammad Baqir; Abedi, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Somayeh and Sadeghi, Saeed. The effectiveness of interaction behavior analysis training on social intimacy of runaway girls in Isfahan: a single case study. Journal of Women's Psychological Social Studies. 2011; 10 (3), 139.
    51. Glover NG, Sylvers PD, Shearer EM, Kane MC, Clasen PC, Epler AJ, Plumb-Vilardaga JC, Bonow JT, Jakupcak M. The efficacy of Focused Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in VA primary care. Psychological services. 2016;13(2):156.
    52. Fotuhi Bonab, Sakineh; Hosseini Nasab, Seyed Davood and Hashemi Nosratabad, Touraj. The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral, Islamic and reciprocal behavior analysis couples on self-knowledge of incompatible couples. Psychological Studies,2010; 7 (2), 37-58.