Daydreaming Scale (MDS-16) in an Iranian Sample

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD student in clinical psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Clinical Psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

3 Ph.D. student of psychology, Khorazmi University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS–16) in an Iranian Sample.
Method: In a descriptive-correlational study a sample of 300 students was selected by an online snowball sampling method. In order to assess the divergent and convergent validity, the Dissociative Experiences Scale II (DES-II) and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II) were used. Cronbach's alpha coefficient, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and Pearson's correlation were used.
Results: The results of exploratory factor analysis in this questionnaire revealed three factors including Interferer daydreaming, Stubborn daydreaming, and Dependent daydreaming in the Iranian student population. Confirmatory factor analysis also showed that the three-factor model has an acceptable fitness. Cronbach's alpha for the first factor was 0.90, the second factor was 0.86, the third factor was 0.79 and the whole questionnaire was 0.93. A significant negative relationship was found between the three factors of the questionnaire and the total score of daydreaming with acceptance and practice, which indicates the divergent validity of this scale. A direct and significant relationship was also evident between the three factors of the questionnaire and the total score of Maladaptive Daydreaming with the components of Dissociative amnesia, Depersonalization/ Derealization, and Absorption/Imaginative Involvement which indicates the convergent validity of the tool.
Conclusion: the Persian version of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale has acceptable psychometric properties in the Iranian student community and could be a useful questionnaire in evaluating Maladaptive Daydreaming.


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