مقایسه اثربخشی بسته درمانی مبتنی بر تجارب با درمان مبتنی بر شفقت‌ورزی بر شادکامی و نشخوار فکری در بیماران افسرده

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان(خوراسگان)

2 گروه مشاوره،دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان شناسی دانشگاه اصفهان

3 استاد گروه روانشناسی دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی دانشگاه اصفهان

4 دانشکده علوم تربیتی ، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی اصفهان واحد(خوراسگان)

10.22075/jcp.2020.18071.1695

چکیده

مقدمه: با توجه به اهمیت شادکامی و نشخوار فکری در افزایش سطح خلق، پژوهش حاضر با هدف مقایسه اثربخشی بسته درمانی مبتنی بر تجارب با درمان مبتنی بر شفقت ­ورزی بر شادکامی و نشخوار فکری در بیماران افسرده صورت گرفته است.
روش: روش پژوهش نیمه­ آزمایشی و طرح پژوهش سه گروهی با پیش‌آزمون، پس‌آزمون و پیگیری بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش را بیماران افسرده مراجعه‌کننده به مرکز خدمات بهزیستی سپاهان در شهر اصفهان در بهار و تابستان سال 7‌139 تشکیل دادند که در نهایت از بین آنها 45 نفر به شیوه دردسترس انتخاب و به صورت تصادفی در سه گروه آزمایش 1(بسته درمانی مبتنی بر تجارب)، گروه آزمایش 2(بسته درمانی مبتنی بر شفقت ­ورزی) و گروه کنترل گمارده شدند. گروه آزمایش 1 طی 16 جلسه 45 دقیقه‌ای و گروه آزمایش 2 طی 10 جلسه 90 دقیقه­ای تحت درمان مبتنی بر شفقت­ ورزی و بسته درمانی مبتنی بر تجارب قرار گرفتند. ابزار پژوهش پرسشنامه شادکامی آکسفورد، پرسشنامه سبک‌های پاسخ و پرسشنامه شفقت به خود فرم کوتاه بود و در نهایت به تحلیل داده­ها با استفاده از تحلیل کوواریانس چند متغیری پرداخته شد.
یافته­ ها: نتایج نشان داد که در پس­آزمون و پیگیری پس از کنترل پیش ­آزمون، بین گروه آزمایش 1، گروه آزمایش 2 و گروه کنترل در شادکامی و نشخوار فکری ‌تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد ولی تفاوت معناداری بین دو گروه آزمایش 1 و گروه آزمایش 2 وجود نداشت.
نتیجه ­گیری: با توجه به اثربخشی درمان های مبتنی بر تجارب و درمان مبتنی بر شفقت ­ورزی در افزایش شادکامی و کاهش نشخوار فکری از استفاده از هر یک از دو رویکرد می تواند مفید و اثربخش باشد. با توجه به تعداد و طول جلسات متفاوت در هر رویکرد استفاده از رویکرد خاص بسته به شرایط می تواند مدنظر درمانگران قرار گیرد، باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of the effectiveness of experience-based therapy package with compassion-based therapy on happiness and rumination in depressed Patients

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sima Andalib 1
  • Mohammad Reza Abedi 2
  • Hamid Taher Neshatdoost 3
  • Asghar Aghaei 4
1 Eslamic Azad university of esfahan(khorasgan)
2 Professor in Counseling Department, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Esfahan
3 Professor in Psychology Department, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Esfahan,
4 Professor of Psychology , Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Considering the importance of happiness and rumination in increasing the level of mood, the present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of experience-based therapy package with compassion-based therapy on happiness and rumination in depressed patients.
Method: The research method was a semi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and follow-up design and three groups. The statistical population of the study included depressed patients who had come to Sepahan Counseling Services Center in Esfahan city in the spring and summer of 2018 so that 45 of them were selected using convenient sampling method and randomly assigned into three groups including experimental groups 1 (experience-based therapy package), experimental groups 2 (compassion-based therapy) and the control group. Experimental group 1 received sixteen 45-minute sessions and experimental group 2 received ten 90-minute sessions treatment according to compassion-based therapy and experience-based therapy package. The research tools were Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, Response Styles Questionnaire and Self-Compassion Scale-short form. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance.
Results: The findings showed that in the post-test and follow-up after pre-test control, there was a significant difference between experimental groups‌1, experimental groups 2 and the control group in happiness and rumination but there was no significant difference between experimental groups 1 and experimental groups 2.
Conclusion: Considering the effectiveness of experience-based therapy and compassion-based therapy in increasing happiness and reducing rumination, the use of either approach can be useful and effective. Given the number and length of sessions in each approach, the use of a concise approach depending on the situation can be considered by therapists.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Compassion-based therapy
  • experience-based therapy package
  • happiness
  • rumination
  • depression
منابع
1. Singhal G, neuroscience BB-F in cellular, 2017‏ undefined. Microglia: an interface between the loss of neuroplasticity and depression‏. frontiersin.org‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncel.2017.00270/full
2. Yirmiya R, Rimmerman N, neurosciences RR-T in, 2015‏ undefined. Depression as a microglial disease‏. Elsevier‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from:
 
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166223615001769
3. Parekh A, Smeeth D, Milner Y, Healthcare ST-, 2017‏ undefined. The role of lipid biomarkers in major depression‏. mdpi.com‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9032/5/1/5
4. Main M, Theory JS-A in the preschool years:, 1990‏ undefined. Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation‏. books.google.com‏ [Internet]. [cited 2019 Nov 6]; Available from: https://books.google.com/books?hl=fa&lr=&id=WzHIfiCXE8EC&oi=fnd&pg=PA121&dq=Main+M,+Solomon+J:+Procedures+for+identifying+infants+as+disorganized/disoriented+during+the+Ainsworth+Strange+Situation,+in+Attachment+in+the+Preschool+Years:+Theory,+Research+and+Intervention.+Edited+by+Greenberg+MT,+Cicchetti+D,+Cummings+EM.+Chicago,+IL&ots=WUufsHwtXl&sig=Cz9w9jyeELqeTyqr-TKxbywZFKs
5. Chan, D. W. Life satisfaction, happiness. happiness.”... Google [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]. Available from: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=fa&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Chan%2C+D.+W.+Life+satisfaction%2C+happiness.+happiness.”+Proceedings+of++the+National+Sciences+.+2012%3B+100%2819%29%3A+11176-11183&btnG=
6. Tamir M, Schwartz S, … SO-J of E, 2017‏ undefined. The secret to happiness: Feeling good or feeling right?‏. psycnet.apa.org‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2017-34745-001
7. Mirshah Jafari E, Abedi M R, Drikvandi H. Happiness... - محقق Google [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]. Available from: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=fa&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Mirshah+Jafari+E%2C+Abedi+M+R%2C+Drikvandi+H.+Happiness+and+its+Effecting+Factors.+Advances+in+Cognitive++Science.+2002%3B+4+%283%29+%3A50-58+%5BIn+Persian%5D&btnG=
8. Veenhoven R, research MH-S indicators, 2006‏ undefined. Rising happiness in nations 1946–2004: A reply to Easterlin‏. Springer‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://idp.springer.com/authorize/casa?redirect_uri=https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11205-005-5074-x.pdf&casa_token=Surkmi-6sDAAAAAA:gFxPAmvqxH7LqH6XLWSFv0SWmS1v81KM46v7xgeJkrhrTd2K3Dso5m-GnssVYa0QLGs9GGxjMgdzbhHi
9. Kamyab Z, Hoseinpour M, Soudani M. A Survey Of Happiness Education Effective In Fordyce Method On Increasing Of Happiness Of Diabetic Patients In Behbahan City‏. 2010‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=207902
10. Lopez A, Mathers C, Ezzati M, lancet DJ-T, 2006‏ undefined. Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data‏. Elsevier‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673606687709?casa_token=wyMNFCJBqIgAAAAA:QRH-yc7oxETDnnGIKnixVh9P70xkHcsLyBx9f-IQou0mKiuDiA0Oh9gYBbpgS5-nW3ez41qSyA
11. Martin K, Blair S, Clark G, Rock A, Mindfulness KH-, 2018‏ undefined. Trait mindfulness moderates the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and depressive symptoms‏. Springer‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://idp.springer.com/authorize/casa?redirect_uri=https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12671-017-0753-7&casa_token=OV_u4k7RKKUAAAAA:YWiEz3rZVZ8wA2oW1VTgdI7UBHYRJg7dXzR1pyzzVkNp7cDXlfxOcuI3VjsEoxQB7DV8GMPeSCfFZTnV
12. Hasegawa A, Kunisato Y, Morimoto H, Nishimura H, Matsuda Y. How do Rumination and Social Problem Solving Intensify Depression? A Longitudinal Study. J Ration - Emotive Cogn - Behav Ther. 2018 Mar 1;36(1):28–46.
13. Differences FR-P and I, 2010‏ undefined. Rumination and worry as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depression and anxiety‏. Elsevier‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886910000413
14. Abramson J, Berger A, … HK-A of I, 2001‏ undefined. Depression and risk of heart failure among older persons with isolated systolic hypertension‏. jamanetwork.com‏ [Internet]. [cited 2019 Oct 27]; Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/648694
15. Nolen H, Wisco E, Lyubomirsky S. Rethinking rumination‏. 2008‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=236269
16. Manavipour D, of AS-TNJ, 2016‏ undefined. Investigation of psychometric properties of rumination-reflection scale‏. shefayekhatam.ir‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: http://shefayekhatam.ir/article-1-876-en.html
17. Krieger T, Altenstein D, Baettig I, therapy ND-B, 2013‏ undefined. Self-compassion in depression: Associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients‏. Elsevier‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005789413000397?casa_token=0juKlcxybwgAAAAA:vu1IDvyDhtyvZ455IPlGXTfUeOpaoHIfUkKkGNWhne6zJ_a1ANnz5KnFald8FhkJ-g72QSl1WQ
18. Maddux R, Riso L, Klein D, … JM-J of A, 2009‏ undefined. Select comorbid personality disorders and the treatment of chronic depression with nefazodone, targeted psychotherapy, or their combination‏. Elsevier‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165032709000081
19. Neff KD, Neff K. Editor’s Corner The Role of Self-Compassion in Development: A Healthier Way to Relate to Oneself. Hum Dev [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2020 Jul 29];52:211–4. Available from: www.karger.com/hdeFax+41613061234E-Mailkarger@karger.chwww.karger.com
20. Gilbert P. Cronicon A Brief Outline of the Evolutionary Approach for Compassion Focused Therapy [Internet]. Vol. 3, EC Psychology and Psychiatry. 2017 [cited 2020 Jul 29]. Available from: https://derby.openrepository.com/handle/10545/622126
21. Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An Inventory for Measuring Depression The difficulties inherent in obtaining [Internet]. jamanetwork.com‏. [cited 2020 Jul 29]. Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/487993
22. Alipoor A, Noorbala A A. A Preliminary Evaluation... Google [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]. Available from: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=fa&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Alipoor+A%2C+Noorbala+A+A.+A+Preliminary+Evaluation+of+the+Validity+and+Reliability+of+the+Oxford+Happiness+Questionnaire+in+Students+in+the+Universities+of+Tehran.+IJPCP.+1999%3B+5+%281+and+2%29+%3A55-66.+&btnG=
23. Nolen-Hoeksema S, psychology CD and social, 1999‏ undefined. “ Thanks for sharing that”: Ruminators and their social support networks.‏. psycnet.apa.org‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1999-11645-011
24. Gilbert P, Procter S. Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self-criticism: Overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach. Vol. 13, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. 2006. p. 353–79.
25. Rezvani M, Sajjadian I. The mediatoring role of self compassion in the effect of personality traits on positive psychological functions among female university students [Internet]. Vol. 4, Positive Psychology Research. 2019 [cited 2020 Jul 29]. Available from: http://ppls.ui.ac.ir/article_21335.htmlhttp://ppls.ui.ac.ir/article_23171_fb854a43215d3b374df6a25d3e4667cf.pdf
26. Shafiee Z, Jazayeri R. Predicting Marital Happiness Based on self-compassion and Flourishing in Married women‏. 2017‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: http://www.iaujournals.ir/article_538042_c2b23566cab2f5477a8c0af3ddae4c0c.pdf
27. Saberian S, Tabatabei M. Efficiency of self- compassion... Google [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]. Available from: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=fa&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Saberian+S%2C+Tabatabei+M.+Efficiency+of+self-+compassion+training+on+the+Mental+well-+being+and+self-+worth+of+female+students+with+stress+of+exam.+Journal+of+Analitical-Cognitive+Psycholoy.Vol.8%2FIssue31%2FWinterPP.2017%3B+19-29.+%5BIn+Persian%5D&btnG=
28. Alighanavati S, Bahrami F, … KG-J of N, 2018‏ undefined. Effectiveness of Compassion-Based Therapy on Quality of Life and Happiness of Females with Breast Cancer in Ahvaz City‏. jne.ir‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: http://jne.ir/browse.php?a_id=920&sid=1&slc_lang=fa&ftxt=1
29. Lyubomirsky S, Caldwell ND, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Effects of Ruminative and Distracting Responses to Depressed Mood on Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories [Internet]. Vol. 75, psycnet.apa.org‏. Psychological Association, Inc; 1998 [cited 2020 Jul 29]. Available from: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1998-04530-012
30. Dulin PL, Dominy JB. The influence of feeling positive about helping among dementia caregivers in New Zealand: Helping attitudes predict happiness. Dementia. 2008 Feb;7(1):55–69.
31. Millar M, Millar K, Social AT-P and, 1988‏ undefined. The effects of helping and focus of attention on mood states‏. journals.sagepub.com‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0146167288143012
32. Yinon Y, Landau MO. On the reinforcing value of helping behavior in a positive mood. Motiv Emot. 1987 Mar;11(1):83–93.
33. Lenzenweger MF. Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to Realize Your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 May;161(5):936–7.
34. Peterson C, Park N, Seligman MEP. Orientations To Happiness And Life Satisfaction: The Full Life Versus The Empty Life. Springer‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://idp.springer.com/authorize/casa?redirect_uri=https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s10902-004-1278-z.pdf&casa_token=yOPa1H0pxoIAAAAA:we_zbg
 
HteZBMWwievtn_i7UDLsUQ6w-CrNEaBYRchePm8DtyOCQnV2ds-cNy0z_a5bjd33gV4-67JvgL5g
35. Neff KD, Dahm KA. Self-compassion: What it is, what it does, and how it relates to mindfulness. In: Handbook of Mindfulness and Self-Regulation. Springer New York; 2015. p. 121–40.
36. Iverach L, Menzies R, review RM-C psychology, 2014‏ undefined. Death anxiety and its role in psychopathology: Reviewing the status of a transdiagnostic construct‏. Elsevier‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272735814001354
37. Diedrich A, Grant M, Hofmann S, … WH-B research and, 2014‏ undefined. Self-compassion as an emotion regulation strategy in major depressive disorder‏. Elsevier‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005796714000758?casa_token=Om67Senm8e8AAAAA:fP4Ngyp-Ul9r_RQXbOIX0ImxrzSapF2gSOPZjhCqInN9uF6Cm2cfJGAphRc-5tmSLXdx5L1qhds
38. Alipour A, Farzad V, Pharmaceutical SS-AJ of M and, 2014‏ undefined. Effectiveness of mindfulness training in reducing of aggression and increasing self-esteem in women with breast cancer‏. Citeseer‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.1045.1958&rep=rep1&type=pdf
39. Kafetsios K, Sideridis GD. Attachment, social support and well-being in young and older adults. J Health Psychol. 2006;11(6):863–75.
40. Mikulincer M, social IO-J of personality and, 1995‏ undefined. Attachment styles and repressive defensiveness: The accessibility and architecture of affective memories.‏. psycnet.apa.org‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1995-33050-001
41. Simos G.Cognitive behavioral therapy, depressive... - Google [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]. Available from: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=fa&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Simos+G.Cognitive+behavioral+therapy%2C+depressive+rumination+and+metacognition.+In%3A+Sin+G%2C+editor.+Cognitive+behavior+therapy%3A+A+guide+for+practicing+clinician.+New+York%3A+Routledge+publication%2C2009%3B18-33.&btnG=
42. Noorbala F, Borjali A, Noorbala A. The interaction effect between “self-compassion” and “rumination” of depressed patients in “compassion focused therapy”‏. 2013‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://www.sid.ir/en/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=337194
43. Gilbert P, … SP-: AIJ of T&, 2006‏ undefined. Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self‐criticism: Overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach‏. Wiley Online Libr [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cpp.507
44. Kulemare B, Javad M, Psychology MB-, Iranian BJ of the, 2016‏ undefined. Effectiveness of cognitive therapy based on‏. bjcp.ir‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: http://bjcp.ir/article-1-518-en.html
45. development KN-H, 2009‏ undefined. The role of self-compassion in development: A healthier way to relate to oneself‏. karger.com‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://www.karger.com/Article/PDF/215071
46. Neff, K. D. The development andvalidation of a scale... Google [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]. Available from: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=fa&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Neff%2C+K.+D.+The+development+andvalidation+of+a+scale+to+measure+self-compassion.+Self+and+Identity.2003%3B%282%29+%2C223-250.+&btnG=
47. Neff K, Kirkpatrick K, personality SR-J of research in, 2007‏ undefined. Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning‏. Elsevier‏ [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 29]; Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092656606000353