اعتباریابی و پایایی سنجی نسخه 10 سؤالی پرسشنامه افکار تکرارشونده در نمونه غیربالینی: یک ابزار فراتشخیصی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، گروه روانشناسی بالینی دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: افکار تکرارشونده منفی یکی از مهم­ترین عوامل فراتشخیصی مشترک در شکل­گیری و تداوم اختلال­های هیجانی است. هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی ویژگی­های روانسنجی نسخه 10 سؤالی پرسشنامه افکار تکرارشونده  بود.
روش: در یک پژوهش مقطعی- توصیفی، 651 دانشجو از دانشگاه­های تهران به روش نمونه­گیری خوشه­ای چندمرحله­ای انتخاب و به پرسشنامه افکار تکرارشونده، پرسشنامه افسردگی بک-ویرایش دوم، پرسشنامه اضطراب بک، مقیاس­ عاطفه مثبت و منفی، پرسشنامه نگرانی ایالت پنسیلوانیا و مقیاس سبک پاسخ‌دهی نشخواری پاسخ دادند. به‌منظور تعیین اعتبار سازه از روش تحلیلی عاملی اکتشافی، برای تعیین همسانی درونی از ضرایب آلفای کرونباخ و برای ارزیابی اعتبار همگرا و واگرا، از ضریب همبستگی نسخه 10 سؤالی پرسشنامه افکار تکرارشونده با مقیاس­های سنجش اضطراب، افسردگی، نشخوار فکری، نگرانی، عاطفه منفی و مثبت استفاده شد.
یافته­ها: نتایج پژوهش نشان داد نسخه 10 سؤالی پرسشنامه افکار تکرارشونده از ساختار تک عاملی، پایایی بازآزمایی مطلوب (76/0) و همسانی درونی بالایی (91/0) برخوردار بود. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که این ابزار با افسردگی، اضطراب، عاطفه منفی، نشخوار فکری و نگرانی اعتبار همگرای و با عاطفه مثبت اعتبار واگرای مطلوبی داشت.
نتیجه­گیری: در مجموع، نتایج پژوهش حاضر شواهدی دال بر اعتبار و پایایی مطلوب نسخه 10 سؤالی پرسشنامه افکار تکرارشونده، به‌عنوان ابزار بررسی مهم­ترین عامل فراتشخیصی یعنی افکار منفی تکرارشونده در بین دانشجویان ایرانی فراهم آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Psychometric Properties of Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire in Nonclinical Sample:Trans diagnostic Tool

نویسنده [English]

  • M Akbari,
استادیار، گروه روانشناسی بالینی دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران
چکیده [English]

Introduction:Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is one of the most important common transdiagnostic factors in the development and maintenance of emotional disorders. Aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire-10 items (RTQ-10(.
Method:In this cross-sectional study, 651 students of Tehran Universities was selected by multistage cluster sampling  method and completed Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire, Beck DepressionInventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule(PANAS),The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)  and Ruminative Response Scale. Theconstruct validity was used to determineexploratory factor analysis,Cronbach’s alpha coefficients was performed  to determine the internal consistency and correlation coefficient of Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire-10 items (RTQ-10) with scales of measuring anxiety, depression, rumination, worry, positive and negative affect was usedto assess convergent and divergent validity.
Results: The results showed of Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire-10 items (RTQ-10) has single-factor structure with  good test-retest reliability (0.76) and high internal consistency (0.91). The results also showed that this questionnaire has favorable convergent validity with depression, anxiety, negative affect, rumination and worry along with divergent validity with positive affect.
Conclusion: Overall, the results provide evidence based on favorable reliability and validity of  Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire-10 items (RTQ-10) as major tool for assessment of transdiagnostic factor namely negative repetitive negative thinking among Iranian students.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • repetitive thinking questionnaire-10
  • Validity
  • Reliability
  • transdiagnostic
1- Spasojevic J, Alloy LB. Rumination as a common mechanism relating depressive risk factors to depression. Emotion. 2001; 1(1): 25.
2- Harvey AG, Watkins E, Mansell W, Shafran R. Cognitive behavioural processes across psychological disorders: A transdiagnostic approach to research and treatment: Oxford University Press, USA. 2004.
3- Calmes CA, Roberts JE. Repetitive thought and emotional distress: Rumination and worry as prospective predictors of depressive and anxious symptomatology. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2007; 31(3): 343-56.
4- Ehring T, Watkins ER. Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. 2008; 1(3): 192-205.
5- Nolen-Hoeksema S, Watkins ER. A heuristic for developing transdiagnostic models of psychopathology: Explaining multifinality and divergent trajectories. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2011; 6(6): 589-609.
6- McEvoy PM, Nathan P, Norton PJ. Efficacy of transdiagnostic treatments: A review of published outcome studies and future research directions. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy. 2009; 23(1): 20-33.
7- Ehring T, Zetsche U, Weidacker K, Wahl K, Schönfeld S, Ehlers A. The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ): Validation of a content-independent measure of repetitive negative thinking. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry. 2011; 42(2): 225-32.
8- Raes F. Repetitive negative thinking predicts depressed mood at 3-year follow-up in students. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 2012; 34(4): 497-501.
9- Watkins E. Dysregulation in level of goal and action identification across psychological disorders. Clinical psychology review. 2011; 31(2): 260-78.
10- McEvoy PM, Mahoney AE. Intolerance of uncertainty and negative metacognitive beliefs as transdiagnostic mediators of repetitive negative thinking in a clinical sample with anxiety disorders. Journal of anxiety disorders. 2013; 27(2): 216-24.
11- Abramowitz J, Whiteside S, Kalsy S, Tolin D. Thought control strategies in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a replication and extension. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2003; 41(5): 529-40.
12- Amir N, Cashman L, Foa EB. Strategies of thought control in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 1997; 35(8): 775-7.
13- Clohessy S, Ehlers A. PTSD symptoms, response to intrusive memories and coping in ambulance service workers. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1999; 38(3): 251-65.
14- Joormann J, Dkane M, Gotlib IH. Adaptive and maladaptive components of rumination? Diagnostic specificity and relation to depressive biases. Behavior therapy. 2006; 37(3): 269-80.
15- Fink P, Ornbol E, Toft T, Sparle KC, Frostholm L, Olesen F. A new, empirically established hypochondriasis diagnosis. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2004; 161(9): 1680-91.
16- Eccleston C, Crombez G, Aldrich S, Stannard C. Worry and chronic pain patients: a description and analysis of individual differences. European Journal of Pain. 2001; 5(3): 309-18.
17- Watkins ER. Depressive rumination: investigating mechanisms to improve cognitive behavioural treatments. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. 2009; 38(S1): 8-14.
18- McEvoy PM, Mahoney AE, Moulds ML. Are worry, rumination, and post-event processing one and the same?: Development of the Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire. Journal of anxiety disorders. 2010; 24(5): 509-19.
19- Mahoney AE, McEvoy PM, Moulds ML. Psychometric properties of the Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire in a clinical sample. Journal of anxiety disorders. 2012; 26(2): 359-67.
20- McEvoy PM, Tribodeau MA, Asmundson G. Trait repetitive negative thinking: A brief transdiagnostic assessment. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology. 2014; 5(3): 382-98.
21- Keisuke T, Yoshinori S. Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire: Development of Japanese version of the Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire. Japanese Journal of Research of Emotion. 2014; 21(2): 65-71.
 22- Kornacka M, Buczny J, Layton RL. Assessing Repetitive Negative Thinking Using Categorical and Transdiagnostic Approaches: A Comparison and Validation of Three Polish Language Adaptations of Self-Report Questionnaires. Frontiers in psychology. 2016; 7(32): 1-12.
23- Macedo A SM, Amaral AP, Nogueira V, Madeira N, Roque C, Marques M, Bos S, Maia B, Pereira AT. Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire-10: Validation of the Portuguese Version. 2014.
24- Gulum IV, Dag I. The Turkish adaptation, validity and reliability study of the Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire and the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi- Anat J Psy. 2012; 13(3): 216-23.
25- Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Manual for the Beck depression inventory-II. San Antonio. TX: Psychological Corporation. 1996.
26- Fata L, Birashk B, Atefvahid M, Dabson K. Meaning assignment structures/schema, emotional states and cognitive processing of emotional information: comparing two conceptual frameworks. Iranian journal of psychiatry and clinical psychology. 2005; 11(3): 312-26. [Persian].
27- Beck AT, Epstein N, Brown G, Steer RA.  An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988; 56(6): 893-7.
28- Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of personality and social psychology. 1988; 54(6): 1063-70.
29- Bakhshipour Roodsari A, Dejkam M, Mehryar A, Birashk B. Structural relationships between dimensions of DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders and dimensions of tripartite model. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. 2004; 9(4): 63-76. [Persian].
30- Meyer TJ, Miller ML, Metzger RL, Borkovec TD. Development and validation of the penn state worry questionnaire. Behaviour research and therapy. 1990; 28(6): 487-95.
31- Shirinzadeh Dastgiri S, Gudarzi MA, Ghanizadeh A, Taghavi SMR. Comparison of metacognitive and responsibility beliefs in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and normal individuals. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. 2008; 14(1): 46-55. [Persian].
32- Nolen-Hoeksema S, Morrow J. A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake. Journal of personality and social psychology. 1991; 61(1): 115-21.
33- Bagherinejad M Salehi-Fedredi J, Tabatabaie M. The relationship between rumination and depression in Iranian students. Psychology and Education Studies. 2010; 11(1): 21-38. [Persian].
34- Butler AC, Chapman JE, Forman EM, Beck AT. The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses. Clinical psychology review. 2006; 26(1): 17-31.
35- Davidson JR. Use of benzodiazepines in social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2004; 65(5): 29-33.
36- Gould RA, Safren SA, Washington D, Otto MW. A meta-analytic review of cognitive-behavioral treatments. In: R. G. Heimberg, C. A. Turk, & D. S. Mennin (Eds.), Generalized Anxiety Disorder: advances in research and practice (pp. 248-264). New York: Guilford Press. 2004.
37- Brown TA, Barlow DH. Classification of anxiety and mood disorders. In D. H. Barlow (Ed.), Anxiety and its’ disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. 2002.
38- Dozois DJA, Westra HA. The nature of anxiety and depression: Implications for Prevention, In K. S. Dobson & D. J. A. Dozois, The prevention of anxiety and depression: Theory, research, and practice. (pp. 9-42). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 2004.
39- Mansell W, Harvey A, Watkins ER, Shafran R. Cognitive behavioral processes across psychological disorders: A review of the utility and validity of the transdiagnostic approach. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. 2008; 1(3): 181-91.
40. Tellegen A. Structures of mood and personality and their relevance to assessing anxiety, with an emphasis on self-report. In A. H. Tuma & J. D. Maser (Eds.), Anxiety and the anxiety disorders (pp.681-706). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 1985.
41- Watson D, Clark LA. Negative affectivity: the disposition to experience aversive emotional states. Psychological bulletin. 1984; 96(3): 465-90.
42- Watson D, Tellegen A. Toward a consensual structure of mood. Psychological bulletin. 1985; 98(2): 219-35.
43- McEvoy PM, Nathan P. Effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy for diagnostically heterogeneous groups: A benchmarking study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2007; 75(2): 344-50.