عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Introduction:Research has shown evidence of cognitive dysfunction especially executive function in persons with academic burn-out syndrome and depressive symptoms. One of the important treatments in this field is neurofeedbacktraining. This study was conducted to examine the impact of upper-alpha neurofeedback training on executive functioning of Kurdistan university female students with academic burn-out syndrome and depression symptoms.
Method: A semi-experimental design with pretest-posttest and control and experimental groups wereused. Subjects of study were selected from the Kurdistan university female students in academic year 2015-2016 on a voluntary basis. The 19 to 25 years old students were asked to fillBeck Depression and Maslach Academic Burn-out questionnaires and based on their scores students with average scores in both questionnaires were selected. Among these 34 individuals voluntarily participated in the study and subjects were divided randomly in experimental (n = 17) and control (n = 17) groups before responding to Stroop Color-word, Wisconsin Card-sorting Computer Trials and Letter-Number Span Test. Neurofeedback sessions was administered for the experimental group afterwards in psychology laboratory of Kurdistan University over a period of 10 sessions for every person (2 times a week for 45 minutes). Neurofeedback protocols were using upper-alpha waves in the parietal and occipital areas(P3, PZ, P4, O1, 02)of the sculpture. After three sessions, twomembers of the experimental group dropped. After the end of sessions both groups were assessed and data were analyzed using analysis of covariance and SPSS.18 software.
Results:Rresultswere shown a significant difference between the experimental and control groups for the posttest updated working memory (P <0.001) and the shift attention (P <0.001), whereasno significant effect were found on response inhibition (P <0.05) by neurofeedback training.
Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that upper-alpha neurofeedback training has significant effect on executive functioning of Kurdistan university girl students with academic burn-out syndrome and depression symptom and through changes that makes in cell's levels of the brain, leads to improve in individuals’ cognitive performance.
1- Azimi M, Piri M, Zavvary T. The relationship between academic burnout and achievement motivation with academic performance of senior high school students`. Journal of educational sciences. 2014; 7(27): 87-102.
2- Lin S-H, Huang Y-C. Life stress and academic burnout. Active Learning in Higher Education. 2014; 15(1): 77-90.
3- Murrough JW, Iacoviello B, Neumeister A, Charney DS, Iosifescu DV. Cognitive dysfunction in depression: neurocircuitry and new therapeutic strategies. Neurobiology of learning and memory. 2011; 96(4): 553-63.
4- Ajilchi B, Ahadi H, Nejati V, Delavar A. Executive Functions in Depressed and Nondepressed Individuals. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2013; 5(2): 77-88.
5- Beck J, Gerber M, Brand S, Pühse U, Holsboer-Trachsler E. Executive function performance is reduced during occupational burnout but can recover to the level of healthy controls. Journal of psychiatric research. 2013; 47(11): 1824-30.
6- Gotlib IH, Joormann J. Cognition and depression: current status and future directions. Annual review of clinical psychology. 2010; 6: 285-312.
7- Vergara-Lopez C, Lopez-Vergara HI, Colder CR. Executive functioning moderates the relationship between motivation and adolescent depressive symptoms. Personality and individual differences. 2013; 54(1): 18-22.
8- Diestel S, Cosmar M, Schmidt K-H. Burnout and impaired cognitive functioning: The role of executive control in the performance of cognitive tasks. Work & Stress. 2013; 27(2): 164-80.
9- May RW, Bauer KN, Fincham FD. School burnout: Diminished academic and cognitive performance. Learning and Individual Differences. 2015; 42: 126-31.
10- Oosterholt BG, Van der Linden D, Maes JH, Verbraak MJ, Kompier MA. Burned out cognition-cognitive functioning of burnout patients before and after a period with psychological treatment. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 2012: 358-69.
11- Österberg K, Karlson B, Hansen Å. Cognitive performance in patients with burnout, in relation to diurnal salivary cortisol: original research report. Stress. 2009; 12(1): 70-81.
12- Kazempoor-Jahromi AM, Bigdeli I, Rafieinia P. The Comparison of Executive Functions and Working Memory in Individuals with Obsessive -Compulsive Disorder and Normal People. Clinical Psychology. 2015; 7(2(26)): 15-27.
13- Rosenblum S, Aloni T, Josman N. Relationships between handwriting performance and organizational abilities among children with and without dysgraphia: A preliminary study. Research in developmental disabilities. 2010; 31(2): 502-9.
14- Huizinga M, Dolan CV, van der Molen MW. Age-related change in executive function: Developmental trends and a latent variable analysis. Neuropsychologia. 2006; 44(11): 2017-36.
15- Wright RD, Ward LM. Orienting of attention: Oxford University Press. 2008.
16- Madden DJ, Spaniol J, Whiting WL, Bucur B, Provenzale JM, Cabeza R, et al. Adult age differences in the functional neuroanatomy of visual attention: a combined fMRI and DTI study. Neurobiology of aging. 2007; 28(3): 459-76.
17- Medendorp WP, Kramer GF, Jensen O, Oostenveld R, Schoffelen J-M, Fries P. Oscillatory activity in human parietal and occipital cortex shows hemispheric lateralization and memory effects in a delayed double-step saccade task. Cerebral cortex. 2006; 17(10): 2364-74.
18- Knouse LE, Barkley RA, Murphy KR. Does executive functioning (EF) predict depression in clinic-referred adults?: EF tests vs. rating scales. Journal of affective disorders. 2013; 145(2): 270-5.
19- Best JR, Miller PH, Jones LL. Executive functions after age 5: Changes and correlates. Developmental review. 2009; 29(3): 180-200.
20- Hargrave DD, Nupp JM, Erickson RJ. Two brief measures of executive function in the prediction of driving ability after acquired brain injury. Neuropsychological rehabilitation. 2012; 22(4): 489-500.
21- Niv S. Clinical efficacy and potential mechanisms of neurofeedback. Personality and Individual Differences. 2013; 54(6): 676-86.
22- Hammond DC. What is neurofeedback: An update. Journal of Neurotherapy. 2011; 15(4): 305-36.
23- aghaei e, abedi a, jamali pa ghalee s. Meta-analysis of effectiveness of cognition-behaviour interventions on rate of depression symptoms. Clinical Psychology & Personality. 2012; 2(6): 69-80.
24- Yaghubi H, Karimi M, Omidi A, Mesbah N, Kahani Sh, Abedi-Qelich Qeshlaq M. Prevalence of Mental Disorders and Demographic Factors that Influence the Freshmen Students of Tehran City Universities of Medical Sciences. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2014; 6(2): 95-104.
25- Hashemi T, Hekmati I. Comparison Of Neuropsychological Functions in Non-Clinical Depressive, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder with Healthy People: Miyak Three Component Model of Executive Functions. 2010.
26- Paelecke-Habermann Y, Pohl J, Leplow B. Attention and executive functions in remitted major depression patients. Journal of affective disorders. 2005; 89(1): 125-35.
27- Kaviani H, Seyfourian H, Sharifi V, Ebrahimkhani N. Reliability and validity of Anxiety and Depression Hospital Scales (HADS): Iranian patients with anxiety and depression disorders. Tehran University of Medical Sciences. 2009; 67(5).
28- Rostam oghli z, Khshnvdnyay Chmachayy B. Comparison of conscience and academic burnout in students with and without learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities. 2013; 2(3(6)): 18-37.
29- Mowlaie M, Hatami J, Rostami R. he comparison of executive functions in obsessive- compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder patients with healthy individuals. Advances in Cognitive Science. 2014; 16(3): 61- 71.
30- Eskandari Z, Taremian F, Nazari M, Bakhtiari M, Momtazi S, Rezae M. Effectiveness of Neurofeedback Treatment to Decrease Severity Symptoms in Major Depression Disorder. Journal of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences & Health Services. 2014; 22(92).
31- Escolano C, Navarro-Gil M, Garcia-Campayo J, Congedo M, De Ridder D, Minguez J. A controlled study on the cognitive effect of alpha neurofeedback training in patients with major depressive disorder. Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience. 2014; 8: 296-.
32- Angelakis E, Stathopoulou S, Frymiare JL, Green DL, Lubar JF, Kounios J. EEG neurofeedback: a brief overview and an example of peak alpha frequency training for cognitive enhancement in the elderly. The clinical neuropsychologist. 2007; 21(1): 110-29.
33- Choi SW, Chi SE, Chung SY, Kim JW, Ahn CY, Kim HT. Is alpha wave neurofeedback effective with randomized clinical trials in depression? A pilot study. Neuropsychobiology. 2011; 63(1): 43-51.
34- Escolano C, Aguilar M, Minguez J, editors. EEG-based upper alpha neurofeedback training improves working memory performance. Engineering in medicine and biology society, EMBC, 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE. 2011:
35- Escolano C, Navarro-Gil M, Garcia-Campayo J, Minguez J, editors. EEG-based upper-alpha neurofeedback for cognitive enhancement in major depressive disorder: A preliminary, uncontrolled study. Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2013 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE. 2013:
36- Escolano C, Olivan B, Lopez-del-Hoyo Y, Garcia-Campayo J, Minguez J, editors. Double-blind single-session neurofeedback training in upper-alpha for cognitive enhancement of healthy subjects. Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE. 2012:
37- Hanslmayr S, Sauseng P, Doppelmayr M, Schabus M, Klimesch W. Increasing individual upper alpha power by neurofeedback improves cognitive performance in human subjects. Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback. 2005; 30(1): 1-10.
38- James LC, Folen RA. EEG biofeedback as a treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome: A controlled case report. Behavioral Medicine. 1996; 22(2) :77-81.
39- Kayıran S, Dursun E, Dursun N, Ermutlu N, Karamürsel S. Neurofeedback intervention in fibromyalgia syndrome; a randomized, controlled, rater blind clinical trial. Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback. 2010; 35(4): 293-302.
40- Kober SE, Schweiger D, Witte M, Reichert JL, Grieshofer P, Neuper C, et al. Specific effects of EEG based neurofeedback training on memory functions in post-stroke victims. Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation. 2015; 12(1): 107.
41- Nan W, Rodrigues JP, Ma J, Qu X, Wan F, Mak P-I, et al. Individual alpha neurofeedback training effect on short term memory. International journal of psychophysiology. 2012; 86(1): 83-7.
42- Zoefel B, Huster RJ, Herrmann CS. Neurofeedback training of the upper alpha frequency band in EEG improves cognitive performance. Neuroimage. 2011; 54(2): 1427-31.
43- Salmela-Aro K, Savolainen H, Holopainen L. Depressive symptoms and school burnout during adolescence: Evidence from two cross-lagged longitudinal studies. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2009; 38(10): 1316-27.
44- Elliott M, Parente F. Efficacy of memory rehabilitation therapy: A meta-analysis of TBI and stroke cognitive rehabilitation literature. Brain injury. 2014; 28(12): 1610-6.
45- Klimesch W, Sauseng P, Hanslmayr S. EEG alpha oscillations: the inhibition–timing hypothesis. Brain research reviews. 2007; 53(1): 63-88.
46- Doppelmayr M, Nosko H, Pecherstorfer T, Fink A. An attempt to increase cognitive performance after stroke with neurofeedback. Biofeedback. 2007; 35(4): 126-30.