مقایسه توجه انتخابی در افراد با نشانه های اختلال شخصیت ضداجتماعی و اختلال شخصیت وسواسی -جبری و افراد بهنجار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد روانشناسی شناختی دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه مهندسی کامپیوتر دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه روانشناسی دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران

4 استاد، گروه روانشناسی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: علوم شناختی با استفاده از تکالیف مختلف ماهیت و فرآیندهای توجه را مورد بررسی قرار می دهد. هدف این پژوهش مقایسه توجه انتخابی در افراد با نشانه های اختلال شخصیت ضداجتماعی و اختلال شخصیت وسواسی –جبری و بهنجار بود.
روش: در این پژوهش 400 دانشجوی دختر به صورت تصادفی انتخاب شدند و نسخه کامپیوتری پرسشنامه میلون را کامل کردند. سپس بر اساس ملاک های ورود، سه گروه اختلال شخصیت ضداجتماعی، اختلال شخصیت وسواسی –جبری و بهنجار انتخاب شدند. در ادامه، آزمون توجه انتخابی d2 برای شرکت کنند گان اجرا شد. داده ها با استفاده ار تحلیل واریانس چند متغیره تحلیل شد.
یافته ­ها: نتایج نشان داد در مؤلفه کارایی تمرکز بین دو گروه شخصیت وسواسی – جبری و گروه بهنجار تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد بطوری که گروه شخصیت وسواسی – جبری عملکرد ضعیف تری داشت. در رابطه با خطای حذف تفاوت گروه شخصیت وسواسی – جبری و گروه شخصیت ضداجتماعی معنادار بود و افراد وسواسی –جبری بیشتر مرتکب خطای حذف شده بودند. همچنین تفاوت دو گروه وسواسی و بهنجار در خطای حذف معنادار بود و افراد وسواسی - جبری خطای حذف بیشتری داشتند.
نتیجه­ گیری: براساس یافته ها پژوهش به نظر می رسد نقص در توجه انتخابی با بروز نشانه های اختلال شخصیت مرتبط باشد. پیشنهاد می شود در تحقیقات آینده مبنای عصب شناختی فرایند توجه و پردازش محرک های اجتماعی در اختلال شخصیت ضداجتماعی و اختلال شخصیت وسواسی –جبری مورد بررسی قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparing the selective attention among individuals with symptoms of antisocial personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and normal individuals

نویسندگان [English]

  • M Jamali, 1
  • F Yaghmaee, 2
  • P Sabahi, 3
  • I. Bigdeli, 4
3 psychology, semnan university, semnan, iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction:Cognitive science examines the nature and processes of attention by using different assignments. The purpose of this study was to compare the selective attention among persons with symptoms of antisocial personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and normal individuals.
Method: In this research, 400 female students were randomly selected and completed the computer version of the Millon Questionnaire. Then, based on the criteria for admission, three groups of antisocial personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and normal subjects were selected. Consequentlythe Selected Attention Test was performed on all participants and data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance.
Results: Results were shown significant difference in the efficiency of the focus (KL) between obsessive-compulsive personality and normal groups, with lower means for obsessive-compulsive personality group. In relation to the elimination error, the difference between the obsessive-compulsive personality group and the anti-social personality group was significant and obsessive-compulsive personality subjects had a oversimplified elimination error. The difference between obsessive-compulsive personality and normal groups was significant in elimination error and obsessive-compulsive individuals had more elimination errors.
Conclusion: Based on the findings, dysfunction of selective attention was associated with symptoms of personality disorder, investigating the neurological basis of the process of attention and processing of social stimuli in antisocial personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is recommended for future research in this field.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • selective attention
  • antisocial personality disorder
  • obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

1- Groome D. An introduction to cognitive psychology: Processes and disorders: Psychology Press. 2013.

2- Tagar MR, Federico CM, Halperin E. The positive effect of negative emotions in protracted conflict: The case of anger. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 2011; 47(1): 157-64.

3- Sternberg RJ. Cognitive Psychology. Thomson Wadsworth. Belmont, CA. 2006.

4- Avisar A. Which behavioral and personality characteristics are associated with difficulties in selective attention? Journal of attention disorders. 2011; 15(5): 357-67.

5- Fournier-Vicente S, Larigauderie P, Gaonac’h D. More dissociations and interactions within central executive functioning: A comprehensive latent-variable analysis. Acta psychologica. 2008; 129(1): 32-48.

6- Yovel I, Revelle W, Mineka S. Who sees trees before forest? The obsessive-compulsive style of visual attention. Psychological science. 2005; 16(2): 123-9.

7- Breeze JMB, Kirkham AJ, Marí-Beffa P. Evidence of reduced selective attention in schizotypal personality disorder. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology. 2011; 33(7): 776-84.

8- Association D-AP. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013.

9- Fertuck EA, Lenzenweger MF, Clarkin JF, Hoermann S, Stanley B. Executive neurocognition, memory systems, and borderline personality disorder. Clinical Psychology Review. 2006; 26(3): 346-75.

10- Trotman H, McMillan A, Walker E. Cognitive function and symptoms in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophrenia bulletin. 2006; 32(3): 489-97.

11- E A-c. The Comparison of Neuropsychological related executive function in people with antisocial personality disorder, obsessive–compulsive and normal semnan. 2015.

12- Nejati  V NH, Zabihzadeh  A, Rashidi  M. A study of theory of mind and empathy in convicts of penal courts:Evidences from reading the mind test through eye image. journal of Social Cognition. 2014; 3(2).

13- Anton ME, Baskin-Sommers AR, Vitale JE, Curtin JJ, Newman JP. Differential effects of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder symptoms on cognitive and fear processing in female offenders. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience. 2012; 12(4): 761-76.

14- Krusemark EA, Kiehl KA, Newman JP. Endogenous attention modulates early selective attention in psychopathy: An ERP investigation. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience. 2016; 16(5): 779-88.

15- Jutai JW, Hare RD. Psychopathy and Selective Attention During Performance of a Complex PerceptualMotor Task. Psychophysiology. 1983; 20(2): 146-51.

16- Shin NY, Kang D-H, Choi J-S, Jung MH, Jang JH, Kwon JS. Do organizational strategies mediate nonverbal memory impairment in drug-naïve patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder? Neuropsychology. 2010; 24(4): 527.

17- McKay D, Abramowitz JS, Calamari JE, Kyrios M, Radomsky A, Sookman D, et al. A critical evaluation of obsessive–compulsive disorder subtypes: symptoms versus mechanisms. Clinical psychology review. 2004; 24(3): 283-313.

18- Eisen JL, Coles ME, Shea MT, Pagano ME, Stout RL, Yen S, et al. Clarifying the convergence between obsessive compulsive personality disorder criteria and obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of personality disorders. 2006; 20(3): 294-305.

19- Muller J, Roberts JE. Memory and attention in obsessive–compulsive disorder: a review. Journal of anxiety disorders. 2005; 19(1): 1-28.

20- Fathi-Ashtiani A, Dastani M. Psychological tests: Personality and mental health. Tehran: Besat. 2009; 46.

21- Bagheri F. d2 Test of attention and concentration. Tehran: Arjmand. 2012.


22- Delavar A. Theoretical and experimentally basics research in humanism and social science. Tehran: Roshd. 2006.

23- Shapiro D. Neurotic Styles New York. Basic Books. Google Scholar. 1965.

24- Fineberg NA, Day GA, de Koenigswarter N, Reghunandanan S, Kolli S, Jefferies-Sewell K, et al. The neuropsychology of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: a new analysis. CNS spectrums. 2015; 20(5): 490-9.

25- García-Villamisar D, Dattilo J. Executive functioning in people with obsessive-compulsive personality traits: evidence of modest impairment. Journal of personality disorders. 2015; 29(3): 418-30.

26- Rivenburg S. An Exploration of the Relationship Between Personality Traits and Cognitive Functioning in Neuropschological Outpatients in Community Based Treatment. 2011.

27- Szeremi A, Tarnok Z, Farkas L, Dotzi J, Gadoros J. Neurocognitive symptoms of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiatriai Tarsasag tudomanyos folyoirata. 2005; 20(4): 299-311.

28- Wu KK, Anderson V, Castiello U. Neuropsychological evaluation of deficits in executive functioning for ADHD children with or without learning disabilities. Developmental neuropsychology. 2002; 22(2): 501-31.

29- Pham TH, Vanderstukken O, Philippot P, Vanderlinden M. Selective attention and executive functions deficits among criminal psychopaths. Aggressive Behavior. 2003; 29(5): 393-405.

30- Haddad Sh, Khosravi M, Najafi M, Sabahi P. The Comparison of Attention Performance between Dependent and Non-Dependent Individuals to Methamphetamine. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2014; 22 (2): 85-93.

31- Rafienia P, Zahmatbar S, Rahimian I, Asadi E, Kazemi-Haghighi N. The Comparison of Executive Function in Prisonerswith Antisocial Personality Disorder and Normal Individuals. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2013; 18(2): 45-54.

 

 

 1- Groome D. An introduction to cognitive psychology: Processes and disorders: Psychology Press. 2013.

2- Tagar MR, Federico CM, Halperin E. The positive effect of negative emotions in protracted conflict: The case of anger. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 2011; 47(1): 157-64.

3- Sternberg RJ. Cognitive Psychology. Thomson Wadsworth. Belmont, CA. 2006.

4- Avisar A. Which behavioral and personality characteristics are associated with difficulties in selective attention? Journal of attention disorders. 2011; 15(5): 357-67.

5- Fournier-Vicente S, Larigauderie P, Gaonac’h D. More dissociations and interactions within central executive functioning: A comprehensive latent-variable analysis. Acta psychologica. 2008; 129(1): 32-48.

6- Yovel I, Revelle W, Mineka S. Who sees trees before forest? The obsessive-compulsive style of visual attention. Psychological science. 2005; 16(2): 123-9.

7- Breeze JMB, Kirkham AJ, Marí-Beffa P. Evidence of reduced selective attention in schizotypal personality disorder. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology. 2011; 33(7): 776-84.

8- Association D-AP. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013.

9- Fertuck EA, Lenzenweger MF, Clarkin JF, Hoermann S, Stanley B. Executive neurocognition, memory systems, and borderline personality disorder. Clinical Psychology Review. 2006; 26(3): 346-75.

10- Trotman H, McMillan A, Walker E. Cognitive function and symptoms in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophrenia bulletin. 2006; 32(3): 489-97.

11- E A-c. The Comparison of Neuropsychological related executive function in people with antisocial personality disorder, obsessive–compulsive and normal semnan. 2015.

12- Nejati  V NH, Zabihzadeh  A, Rashidi  M. A study of theory of mind and empathy in convicts of penal courts:Evidences from reading the mind test through eye image. journal of Social Cognition. 2014; 3(2).

13- Anton ME, Baskin-Sommers AR, Vitale JE, Curtin JJ, Newman JP. Differential effects of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder symptoms on cognitive and fear processing in female offenders. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience. 2012; 12(4): 761-76.

14- Krusemark EA, Kiehl KA, Newman JP. Endogenous attention modulates early selective attention in psychopathy: An ERP investigation. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience. 2016; 16(5): 779-88.

15- Jutai JW, Hare RD. Psychopathy and Selective Attention During Performance of a Complex Perceptual‐Motor Task. Psychophysiology. 1983; 20(2): 146-51.

16- Shin NY, Kang D-H, Choi J-S, Jung MH, Jang JH, Kwon JS. Do organizational strategies mediate nonverbal memory impairment in drug-naïve patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder? Neuropsychology. 2010; 24(4): 527.

17- McKay D, Abramowitz JS, Calamari JE, Kyrios M, Radomsky A, Sookman D, et al. A critical evaluation of obsessive–compulsive disorder subtypes: symptoms versus mechanisms. Clinical psychology review. 2004; 24(3): 283-313.

18- Eisen JL, Coles ME, Shea MT, Pagano ME, Stout RL, Yen S, et al. Clarifying the convergence between obsessive compulsive personality disorder criteria and obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of personality disorders. 2006; 20(3): 294-305.

19- Muller J, Roberts JE. Memory and attention in obsessive–compulsive disorder: a review. Journal of anxiety disorders. 2005; 19(1): 1-28.

20- Fathi-Ashtiani A, Dastani M. Psychological tests: Personality and mental health. Tehran: Besat. 2009; 46.

21- Bagheri F. d2 Test of attention and concentration. Tehran: Arjmand. 2012.

22- Delavar A. Theoretical and experimentally basics research in humanism and social science. Tehran: Roshd. 2006.

23- Shapiro D. Neurotic Styles New York. Basic Books. Google Scholar. 1965.

24- Fineberg NA, Day GA, de Koenigswarter N, Reghunandanan S, Kolli S, Jefferies-Sewell K, et al. The neuropsychology of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: a new analysis. CNS spectrums. 2015; 20(5): 490-9.

25- García-Villamisar D, Dattilo J. Executive functioning in people with obsessive-compulsive personality traits: evidence of modest impairment. Journal of personality disorders. 2015; 29(3): 418-30.

26- Rivenburg S. An Exploration of the Relationship Between Personality Traits and Cognitive Functioning in Neuropschological Outpatients in Community Based Treatment. 2011.

27- Szeremi A, Tarnok Z, Farkas L, Dotzi J, Gadoros J. Neurocognitive symptoms of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiatriai Tarsasag tudomanyos folyoirata. 2005; 20(4): 299-311.

28- Wu KK, Anderson V, Castiello U. Neuropsychological evaluation of deficits in executive functioning for ADHD children with or without learning disabilities. Developmental neuropsychology. 2002; 22(2): 501-31.

29- Pham TH, Vanderstukken O, Philippot P, Vanderlinden M. Selective attention and executive functions deficits among criminal psychopaths. Aggressive Behavior. 2003; 29(5): 393-405.

30- Haddad Sh, Khosravi M, Najafi M, Sabahi P. The Comparison of Attention Performance between Dependent and Non-Dependent Individuals to Methamphetamine. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2014; 22 (2): 85-93.

31- Rafienia P, Zahmatbar S, Rahimian I, Asadi E, Kazemi-Haghighi N. The Comparison of Executive Function in Prisoners with Antisocial Personality Disorder and Normal Individuals. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2013; 18(2): 45-54.