مقایسه اثربخشی تحلیل رفتار کاربردی و آموزش پاسخ محور بر جهت گیری زندگی، پذیرش مثبت بی قید و شرط و اضطراب اجتماعی مادران دارای کودک مبتلا به اوتیسم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری روانشناسی عمومی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ساری، ساری، ایران

2 استاد، گروه روانشناسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ساری، ساری، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه روانشناسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ساری، ساری، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: این پژوهش با هدف مقایسه اثربخشی تحلیل رفتار کاربردی و آموزش پاسخ محور بر جهت­گیری زندگی، پذیرش مثبت بی قید و شرط خود و اضطراب اجتماعی مادران دارای کودک مبتلا به اوتیسم انجام گرفت.




روش: طرح پزوهش حاضر به صورت نیمه آزمایشی بود. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه مادران دارای کودک مبتلا به اوتیسم شهرستان ساری که در شش ماهه دوم سال 1395 به مراکز آموزش کودکان استثنایی مراجعه کردند، بود. حجم نمونه شامل 24 نفر بود که با روش نمونه گیری هدفمند انتخاب و به صورت تصادفی در دو گروه آزمایشی و یک گروه گواه جایگزین شدند. گروه­های آزمایش درمان­های ABA و PRT را دریافت کردند اما گروه گواه درمانی دریافت نکرد. ابزارهای این پژوهش عبارت بودند از پرسشنامه پذیرش بی­قید و شرط خود(USAQ) ، پرسشنامه جهت­گیری زندگی(LOT) و مقیاس اضطراب اجتماعی (SPI) که در دو مرحله اجرا شد. داده­ها با استفاده از تحلیل کوواریانس چند متغیره تحلیل شد.




یافته­ها: نتایج حاصل از مدل عمومی خطی: تحلیل کوواریانس چند متغیره نشان داد که با کنترل اثر پیش آزمون در مرحله ی پس آزمون در متغیرهای جهت‌گیری زندگی،  پذیرش مثبت بی قید و شرط خود و اضطراب اجتماعی  بین گروه های آزمایشی (آموزش پاسخ محور و تحلیل رفتار کاربردی) تفاوت معنادارای وجود نداشت و تنها یک روند بهبود مشاهده شد.




نتیجه­گیری: مداخلات آموزش پاسخ محور و تحلیل رفتار کاربردی تأثیر مهمی بر جهت‌گیری زندگی، پذیرش مثبت بی­قید و شرط خود و اضطراب اجتماعی مادران کودکان اوتیستیک نداشت اما یک روند بهبودی نسبت به گروه کنترل در اضطراب اجتماعی ماداران مشاهده شد. لذا تحقیق بیشتر در خصوص امکان اجرای مؤثرتر این مداخلات به محققان توصیه می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The comparison of the effectiveness of Applied Behavior Analysis and Pivotal Response Training on life orientation, unconditional acceptance and social anxiety in mothers of autistic children

نویسندگان [English]

  • H Babaei-Kafaki, 1
  • *R Hassanzadeh, 2
  • M.k. Fakhri, 3
1 psychology, Faculty of Humanities, islamic azad universty sari branch, sari, mazandaran, iran
3 psychology, Faculty of Humanities, islamic azad university sari branch, sari, mazandaran, iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: the purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of ABA and PRT on life orientation, unconditional acceptance and social anxiety in mothers of autistic children.




Method: This research applied a quasi-experimental  designs with pretest-posttest frame. By a convenience sampling method among  a statistical population including all mothers with a autistic child who attended to the exceptional children education centers in Sari town a sample consisted of 24 subjects were selected and divided into three groups (1 control and 2 experimental). The first group were treated with ABA and the second group received  PRT while no intervention made on control group.  Unconditional acceptance questionnaire (USAQ), life orientation test (LOT) and social phobia inventory (SPI) were used in pre and post test occations.




Results: the results of a GLM: MANOVA showed that there was no difference between experimental groups and control by controlling the effect of pre-test in study variables (Orientation of Life, Unconditional Acceptance, Social Anxiety). However, a clincaly positive trend was evident relative to the control group for social anxiety score.




Conclusion: ABA and PRT could not affect considerably the orientation of life, unconditional acceptance and social anxiety of mothers with autistic children. However a significant clinical trend was evident rather than the control group in the social anxiety of mothers after ABA intervention. Further research in this field is recommended to future researchers for likelihood of more effective administration of these interventions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Applied Behavior Analysis
  • Pivotal Response Training
  • Orientation of Life
  • Unconditional Acceptance
  • Social Anxiety
  • Autism
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