عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resilience education on the reduction of loneliness and anxiety of high school girl students.
Method: The present study was a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest design with control group. The research population of all high school girl students in al-Shaterkeh in 1995 was studying. In order to select a sample among students whose grades in the combination of dependent variables were more than a standard deviation higher than the average, 30 were randomly selected and divided into two groups of 15 person. Eventually, one of the groups was randomly assigned as the experimental group and the other group was considered as the control group. The experimental group received 12 sessions of the training program, while no training was provided to the control group. Both groups completed the loneliness and anxiety questionnaires before and after the intervention.
Results: Data were analyzed using a Multivariate Analysis of Covariance and one-way Analysis of Variance. The final result showed that the level of loneliness and anxiety in the experimental group decreased compared to the control group.
Conclusion: Results of this research showed decreased level of loneliness and anxiety following the Resilience Education intervention in the students. Applying this intervention to reduce the students' loneliness and anxiety then is recommended.
1- Mansourian M, Solhi M, Adab Z, Latifi M. Relationship between dependence to mobile phone with loneliness and social support in University students. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 2014; 21(120): 1-8. [In Persian]
2- Sullivan HS. The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York: Norton. 1953.
3- Zhao J, Kong F, Wang Y. The role of social support and self-esteem in the relationship between shyness and loneliness. Personality and Individual Differences. 2013; 54(5): 577-81.
4- Yao MZ, Zhong Z-J. Loneliness, social contacts and Internet addiction: A cross-lagged panel study. Computers in Human Behavior. 2014; 30: 164-70.
5- Vanhalst J, Goossens L, Luyckx K, Scholte RH, Engels RC. The development of loneliness from mid-to late adolescence: Trajectory classes, personality traits, and psychosocial functioning. Journal of Adolescence. 2013; 36(6): 1305-12.
6- Tajvidi M, Zeighaini MS. The level of loneliness, hopelessness and self-esteem in major thalassemia adolescents. Scientific Journal of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization. 2012; 9(1).
7- Le Roux A. The relationship between adolescents’ attitudes toward their fathers and loneliness: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2009; 18(2): 219-26.
8- Salimia A, Jowkar B. Personality predispositions and loneliness in adolescence. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2011; 29: 296-9.
9- Heinrich LM, Gullone E. The clinical significance of loneliness: A literature review. Clinical psychology review. 2006; 26(6): 695-718.
10- Ang CS, Mansor AT. An empirical study of selected demographic variables on loneliness among youths in Malaysian university. Asia Life Sciences. 2012; 21(1): 107-21.
11- Russell D, Peplau L, Perlman D. Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research, and therapy. 1982.
12- Khodadadi M, Doltyarbastany R, Editors. Job stress prevention and coping. Tehran: Modaber Publication. 2007. [In Persian].
13- Bassampour Sh. The effect of preoperative education on anxiety of patients undergoing open heart surgery, Tehran 2004. J Health Sci. 2006; 3: 10-5. [In Persian].
14- American Psychology Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Mnual of Mental Disorders. Translated by: Yahya seyed Mohammadi. Fifth Edition. Tehran. Nashr Ravan 2013; .233-45. [In Persian].
15- Müller-Pinzler L, Gazzola V, Keysers C, Sommer J, Jansen A, Frässle S, et al. Neural pathways of embarrassment and their modulation by social anxiety. NeuroImage. 2015; 119: 252-61.
16- Millan CK, Francis SE, Rith- Najarian L, Chorpita BF. Evidence Base Update: 50 Years of Research on Treatment for Child and Adolescent Anxiety. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2015; 18: 1-23.
17- Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of general psychiatry. 2005; 62(6): 617-27.
18- Ly C, Gomez R. Unique associations of reinforcement sensitivity theory dimensions with social interaction anxiety and social observation anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences. 2014; 60: 20-4.
19- Clark DA, Beck AT. Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders (science and practice). Newyork, the Guilford press. 2010; 5-30.
20- Ghezelbash, S. Peyravi, H. The relationship between social anxity and demographic variables in nursing students. JHealth Care. 2015; 17 (1): 19-29.
21- Sadock B, Sadock V, Editors. Kaplan and Sadock’s comprehensive text book of psychiatry. 7th ed. North American: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2010.
22- Boschen MJ. Publication trends in individual anxiety disorders: 1980–2015. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2008; 22(3): 570-5.
23- Verkerk AJ VA, Smets EM, Dekker LR, Wilde AA, Van Langen IM, Christiaans I, Nieuwkerk PT. Quality of life in young adult patients with a cardiogenetic condition receiving an ICD for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology. 2015; 38(7): 870-7
24- Wiliams MG, Duggan,D.S., Crane,C., Fennel,M.J.V. . Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for prevention of Recurrence of Suicidal Behavior. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In session. 2006; 62(2): 201-10.
25- Werner, E. E. & Smith, R.S. Vulnerable but invincible: A longitudinal study of resilient children and youth. New York: McGraw Hill. 1970; Wells, A. (2013). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: A practice manual and conceptual guide.John Wiley & Sons.
26- Moljord IE MU, Espnes GA, Hjemdal O, Eriksen L. Physical activity, resilience, and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Mental Health and Physical Activity. 2014; 7(2): 79-85.
27- Lamond AL, Depp, C.A., Allison, M., Langer, R., Reichstadt, J., Moore, D.J., Goldshan, Sh., Ganiats, T.G., & Jeste, D.V. . Measurement and predictors of resilience among community- dwelling older women. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2009(43): 148- 54.
29- Matyas D PM. Positioning resilience for 2015: the role of resistance, incremental adjustment and transformation in disaster risk management policy. Disasters. 2015; 39(1): 1-8.
29- Martin A J & Marsh H. Academic resilience and its psychological and educational correlates: A construct validity approach. Psychology in the Schools. 2006; 43: 267-81.
30- Markovitz SE SW, Arntz A, Peters ML. Resilience as a predictor for emotional response to
the diagnosis and surgery in breast cancer patients. Psycho‐Oncology. 2015; 24(12): 1639-45.
31- Tol WA, Song S & Jordans MJ. Annual research review: Resilience and mental health in children and adolescents living in areas of armed conflict–a systematic review of findings in low‐and middle‐income countries. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2013; 54(4): 445-60.
32- Rose H, Miller L, Martinez Y. FRIENDS for Life: the results of a resilience-building, anxiety-prevention program in a Canadian elementary school. Professional School Counseling. 2009; 12(6): 400-7.
33- Bonanno, GA. Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American psychologist. 2004; 59(1): 20
34- Connor KM., Davidson RT. Development of anew resilience scale: The Connor–Davidson resilience scale (CD- RISC).Depression and anxiety. 2003; 18: 76- 82.
35- Heravi, M. & Milani, M. Investigating the effect of relaxation therapy on level of exam anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 2008; 100: 31-8.
36- Duerr, M.. The use of meditation and Mindffulness practices of support Millitary care providers: A prospectus. 2008; 2: 28-39.
37- Steinhardt M DC. Evaluation of a resilience intervention to enhance coping strategies and protective factors and decrease symptomatology. Journal of American college health. 2008; 56(4): 445-53.
38- Kaveh, M. Editing of Increasing resiliency training program Against stress and the impact of That on the components of the quality of life of parents with minor Mentall disable children. Master thesis of University of Allameh Tabatabai in Tehran. 2009 .[In persian].
39- Mansourian M SM, Adab Z, Latifi M. . Relationship between dependence to mobile phone with loneliness and social support in University students. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 2014; 21(120): 1-8
40- Kim TH LS, Yu K, Lee S, Puig A. Hope and the meaning of life as influences on Korean adolescents’ resilience: Implications for counselors. Asia pacific education review. 2005; 6(2): 143-52.
41- Canham SL. What's loneliness got to do with it? Older women who use benzodiazepines. Australasian journal on ageing. 2015 Mar; 34(1): E7-12.
42- Lee JE, Sudom KA, Zamorski MA. Longitudinal analysis of psychological resilience and mental health in Canadian military personnel returning from overseas deployment. Journal of occupational health psychology. 2013 Jul; 18(3): 327.
43- Naderi F, Haghshenas F. The relationship between impulsivity, loneliness and the mobile phone usage rate in mail and female students of ahvaz islamic azad university. New findings in psychology. 2009; 4(12): 111-21. [In Persian].
44- Caputi M, Pantaleo G, Scaini S. Do Feelings of Loneliness Mediate the Relationship between Sociocognitive Understanding and Depressive Symptoms During Late Childhood and Early Adolescence?. The Journal of genetic psychology. 2017 Jul 4; 178(4): 207-16.
45- Jafari A, Sadri J, Fathimoghadam GH. The relationship between performance of family, religion and mental health and comparing them in Girl and boy students. Counsel Res Develop. 2007; 6(22): 107-5.
46- Friedman M, Rosenman RH. Type A behavior and your heart. Fawcett. 1974.
47- Neenan M. Developing resilience: A cognitive-behavioural approach. Routledge. 2009 Jun 9.
48- Loprinzi CE, Prasad K, Schroeder DR, Sood A. Stress Management and Resilience Training (SMART) program to decrease stress and enhance resilience among breast cancer survivors: a pilot randomized clinical trial. Clinical breast cancer. 2011 Dec 1; 11(6): 364-8.
49- Keefe FJ SR, Somers TJ, Varia I, Blazing M, Waters SJ, McKee D, Silva S, She L, Blumenthal JA, O’connor J. Effects of coping skills training and sertraline in patients with non-cardiac chest pain: a randomized controlled study. PAIN. 2011; 152(4): 730-41.ial. . Internet interventions. 2017; 9: 15-24.
50- Schotanus-Dijkstra M DC, Pieterse ME, Boon B, Walburg JA, Bohlmeijer ET. An early intervention to promote well-being and flourishing and reduce anxiety and depression: A randomized controlled trial. Internet interventions. 2017; 9: 15-24.
51- Bigie A, Mohamadifar MA, Abdolahi AX. Cognitive - Positive Behavioral Therapy - Resilience to Students' Self-esteem. Clinical Psychology Journal. 2017;1.
52- Williams SL MK. The nexus of domestic violence and poverty: Resilience in women’s anxiety. Violence Against Women. 2004; 10(3): 283-93.
53- Rezaie, AM. Psychometric properties of students' loneliness scale (Salafi). Clinical Psychology Journal. 2013; 3(19).
54- Lee JE SK, Zamorski MA. Longitudinal analysis of psychological resilience and mental health in Canadian military personnel returning from overseas deployment. Journal of occupational health psychology. 2013; 18(3): 327.
55-Fazeli M, EhteshamZade P, Hashemi E. the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral therapy on the cognitive flexibility of Depressed people. Journal of Thought and behavior in clinical psychology. 2014; 9(34): 27-36
56- Hayes SC. Climbing our hills: A beginning conversation on the comparison of acceptance and commitment therapy and traditional cognitive behavioral therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 2008; 15(4): 286-95