عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Cognitive dimensions, particularly cognitive flexibility in addition to parasocial interaction are noticeable factors in celebrity bonds. In this regard, the present study was conducted to compare cognitive flexibility and parasocial interaction in celebrity worshipers and non-worshipers.
Method: In an causal-comparative design among statistical population of the research including all students of Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of University of Tehran in 2018 a total sample of 350 male and female students were selected by convenience sampling method and responded to Celebrity Attitude Scale, Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, and Celebrity Parasocial Interaction Scale. Considering the high and low total scores of the Celebrity Attitude Scale and eliminating the middle scores, the study participants were divided into two groups of celebrity worshipers (n=120) and non-worshipers (n=120) and cognitive flexibility and parasocial interaction were compared between the two groups. A multivariate analysis of variance was applied for data analysis.
Results: According to the results, celebrity worshipers got lower scores in cognitive flexibility and higher scores in parasocial interaction compared to non-worshipers (p<0/001).
Conclusion: Based on these results, cognitive flexibility and parasocial interaction are remarkable factor in celebrity worship that enhancement of cognitive flexibility ability and reduction of the parasocial interaction can result in reduction of excessive interaction with favorite celebrities.
Keywords: cognitive flexibility, parasocial interaction, celebrity worshipers, celebrity non-worshipers.
1. Driessens O. Theorizing celebrity cultures: thickenings of celebrity cultures and the role of cultural (working) memory. Communications: European Journal of Communication Research. 2014; 39(2): 109-27.
2. Juntiwasarakij S. Framing emerging behaviors influenced by internet celebrity. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences. 2018; 39(3): 550-5.
3. Larson RW, Verma S. How children and adolescents spend time across the world: work, play and developmental opportunities. Psychological Bulletin. 1999; 125(6): 701-36.
4. Toffler A. Powershift: Knowledge, wealth, and violence at the edge of the 21st century. New York: Bantam. 1990.
5. Turner G. Approaching celebrity studies. Celebrity Studies. 2010; 1(1): 11-20.
6. Alexander JC. The Celebrity-Icon. Cultural Sociology. 2010; 4(3): 323-36.
7. Kurzman C, Anderson C, Key C, Lee YO, Moloney M, Silver A, Van Ryn MW. Celebrity status. Sociological theory. 2007; 25(4): 347-67.
8. Hofmman SJ, Tan C. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities’ influence on patients’ health-related behaviors. Archives of Public Health. 2015; 73(1): 3.
9. Huh HR. Digit ratio and celebrity worship. Personality and Individual Differences. 2012; 52(3), 265-8.
10. McCutcheon LE, Lange R, Houran J. Conceptualization and measurement of celebrity worship. British Journal of Psychology. 2002; 93(1): 67-87.
11. Maltby J, Houran J, McCutcheon LE. A Clinical Interpretation of Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with Celebrity Worship. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2003; 191(1): 25-9.
12. Shabahang R, Besharat MA, Nikogoftar M, Bagheri Sheykhangafshe F. (2018). Role of Cognitive Flexibility and Emotion Regulation in Prediction of Celebrity Worship among University Student. Journal of Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology. 2015; 20(1): 13-25. [Persian].
13. Kuiper JS, Zuidersma M, Zuidema SU, Burgerhof JGM, Stolk RP, Voshaar RCOV, Smidt N. Social relationships and cognitive decline: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2016; 45(4): 1169-206.
14. Wascher CAF, Kulahci IG, Langley EJG, Shaw RC. How does cognition shape social relationships? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 2018; 373(1756): 20170293.
15. Fernald RD. Cognitive skills and the evolution of social systems. Journal of Experimental Biology. 2017; 220: 103-13.
16. Fujii DEM, Ahmed I, Takeshita J. Neuropsychologic implications in erotomania: two case studies. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology and Behavioral Neurology. 1999; 12: 110-16.
17. Levy MR. Watching TV news as parasocial interaction. Journal of Broadcasting. 1979; 23: 69-80.
18. McCutcheon LE, Ashe DD, Houran J, Maltby J. A Cognitive Profile of Individuals Who Tend to Worship Celebrities. The Journal of Psychology Interdisciplinary and Applied. 2003; 137(4): 309-22.
19. Houran J, Navik S, Zerrusen K. Boundary functioning in celebrity worshippers. Personality and Individual Differences. 2005; 38(1): 237–48.
20. McCutcheon LE, Lowinger R, Wong M, Jenkins W. Is analytic thinking related to celebrity worship and disbelief in religion? North American Journal of Psychology. 2014; 16(3): 453–62.
21. Buttelmann F, Karbach J. Development and Plasticity of Cognitive Flexibility in Early and Middle Childhood. Frontiers in Psychology. 2017; 8: 1040.
22. Monsell S. Task Switching. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 2003; 7(3): 134-40.
23. Dajani D R, Uddin LQ. Demystifying cognitive flexibility: Implications for clinical and developmental neuroscience. Trends in Neurosciences. 2015; 38(9): 571-8.
24. Martin MM, Cayanus JL, McCutcheon LE, Maltby J. Celebrity worship and cognitive flexibility. North American Journal of Psychology. 2003; 5: 75–80.
25. Maltby J, Day L, McCutcheon LE, Martin MM, Cayanus JL. Celebrity worship, cognitive flexibility, and social complexity. Personality and Individual Differences. 2004; 37(7): 1475-82.
26. Giles DC. Parasocial interaction: A review of the literature and a model for future research. Media Psychology. 2002; 4(3): 279-305.
27. Dibble JL, Hartmann T, Rosaen, SF. Parasocial interaction and parasocial relationship: Conceptual clarification and a critical assessment of measures. human communication research. 2016; 42(1): 21-44.
28. Shabahang R, Besharat MA, Mokhtari Chirani B, Rezaei S, Nikoogoftar M, Bagheri Sheykhangafshe F. Investigation of psychometric attributes of the experience of parasocial interaction scale in iranian students Sample. Journal of Social Psychology Research. 2019; 8(32): 17-44. [Persian]
29. Auter PJ, Davis DM. (1991). When characters speak directly to viewers: Breaking the fourth wall in television. Journalism Quarterly. 1991; 68(1-2): 165–171.
30. Grubbs J. Real world, real conversations: Communication in an increasingly parasocial and pararealistic environment. (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1997) (UMINo. 9805409).
31. Velten JC. (2015). The death of Big Tex: A parasocial interaction case study. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2015; 5(3), 1-7.
32. O’Donovan R. ‘To Boldly Go Where No Psychologist Has Gone Before”: Effects of Participation in Fandom Activities on Parasocial Relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology and Social Science. 2016; 2(1), 41-61.
33. Sansone RA; Sansone LA. “I’m Your Number One Fan”— A Clinical Look at Celebrity Worship. Innovations in Clinical Neurosciences. 2014; 11(1-2): 39-43.
34. McCutcheon LE, Gillen MM, Browne BL, Murtagh MP, Collisson B. Intimate Relationships and Attitudes toward Celebrities. Interpersona. 2016; 10(1): 77-89.
35. McCutcheon LE, Aruguete MS, Jenkins W, McCarley N, Yockey R An Investigation of Demographic Correlates of the Celebrity Attitude Scale. Interpersona. 2013; 10(2): 161-70.
36. Dennis JP, Vander Wal JS. The cognitive flexibility inventory: Instrument development and