عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Food craving means a strong desire to consume unnecessary foods that can be a source of eating disorders. Aim in this study to compare the efficacy of Schema Therapy and Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation (tDCS) in this field.
Methods: The present study was conducted with a two-group experimental design (pre-test, post-test with two-month follow-up). The treatment was presented in two levels of tDCS (six sessions in 20 minute) and schema therapy (12 sessions of 45 minutes per week). The population consisted of people with food cravings. After screening, 40 subjects (12 males and 28 females) were selected by convenience sampling and randomly divided into two experimental groups. Craving was also measured by the Food Craving Questionnaire of Meule & et al. (2014). Data were analyzed by ANOVA with repeated measure.
Results: There was no significant difference between the two treatments in reducing craving symptoms (F = 0.64, P> 0.05). But, there was a significant difference between the craving scores over time (pre-test, post-test, and follow-up) (F> 69.39> P> 0.05).
Conclusion: The results showed that the effectiveness of both methods in reducing food craving syndrome was the same. As a result, no single method is effective in reducing food cravings, and it is recommended that tDCS be used as a complementary therapeutic therapy in this area, since tDCS has minimal side effects. Schema therapy can also be used as a preventive intervention to weaken maladaptive schemas at the outset.
1. Chao A, Grilo CM, White MA, Sinha R. Food cravings, food intake, and weight status in a community-based sample. Eat Behav. 2014; 15(3): 478-482.
2. Malika NM, Hayman LW Jr, Miller AL, Lee HJ, Lumeng JC. Low-income women's conceptualizations of food craving and food addiction. Eat Behav. 2015; 18: 25-29.
3. Chao AM, Grilo CM, Sinha R. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race. Eat Behav. 2014 Aug; 15(3): 478-482.
4. Ledoux T, Nguyen AS, Bakos-Block C, Bordnick P. Using virtual reality to study food cravings. Appetite. 2013; 71: 396-402.
5. Cepeda-Benito A, Fernandez MC, Moreno S. Relationship of gender and eating disorder symptoms to reported cravings for food: construct validation of state and trait craving questionnaires in Spanish. Appetite. 2003 Feb; 40(1): 47-54.
6. Hallam J, Boswell RG, DeVito EE, Kober H. Gender-related Differences in Food Craving and Obesity. Yale J Biol Med. 2016 Jun; 89(2): 161–173.
7. Drenowatz C, Evensen LH, Ernstsen L, Blundell JE, Hand GA, Shook RP, et al. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between different exercise types and food cravings in free-living healthy young adults. Appetite. 2017 Nov; 118: 82-89.
8. Lim SS, Norman RJ, Clifton PM, Noakes M. Hyperandrogenemia, psychological distress, and food cravings in young women. Physiol Behav. 2009 Sep 7; 98(3): 276-280.
9. Coffino JA, Heiss S, Hormes JM. Targeting acceptance in the management of food craving: The mediating roles of eating styles and thought suppression. Eat Behav. 2018 Apr; 29: 132-136.
10. Luo H, Li J, Zhang Q, Cao P, Ren X, Fang A, Liao H. Obesity and the onset of depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older adults in China: evidence from the CHARLS. BMC Public Health. 2018; 18:909-915.
11. Surowka AD, Ziomber A, Czyzycki M, Migliori A, Kasper K, Szczerbowska-Boruchowska M. Molecular and elemental effects underlying the biochemical action of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in appetite control. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2018 Apr 15; 195: 199-209.
12. Chan JSY, Yan JH, Payne VG. The Impact of Obesity and Exercise on Cognitive Aging. Front Aging Neurosci. 2013; 5: 97-110.
13. Grammer AC, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Burke NL, Byrne ME, Mi SJ, Jaramillo M, et al. An examination of the associations between pediatric loss of control eating, anxiety, and body composition in children and adolescents. Eat Behav. 2018 Aug; 30: 109-114.
14. Georgii C, Goldhofer P, Meule A, Richard A, Blechert J. Food craving, food choice and consumption: The role of impulsivity and sham-controlled tDCS stimulation of the right dlPFC. Physiol Behav. 2017 Aug 1; 177: 20-26.
15. Ostrovsky NW, Swencionis C, Wylie-Rosett J, Isasi CR. Social anxiety and disordered overeating: an association among overweight and obese individuals. Eat Behav. 2013 Apr; 14(2): 145-148.
16. Scott KM, Bruffaerts R, Simon GE, Alonso J, Angermeyer M, de Girolamo G, et al. Obesity and mental disorders in the general population: results from the world mental health surveys. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Jan; 32(1): 192-200.
18. McIntosh VVW, Jordan J, Carter JD, Frampton CMA, McKenzie JM, Latner JD. Psychotherapy for transdiagnostic binge eating: A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy, appetite-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, and schema therapy. Psychiatry Res. 2016 Jun 30; 240: 412-420.
19. Pugh M. A narrative review of schemas and schema therapy outcomes in the eating disorders. Clin Psychol Rev. 2015 Jul; 39:30-41.
20. Thompson-Brenner H, editor. Casebook of Evidence-Based Therapy for Eating Disorders. New York: The Guilford Press; 2015.
22. Damiano SR, Reece J, Reid S, Atkins L, Patton G. Maladaptive schemas in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa and implications for treatment. Eat Behav. 2015 Jan; 16: 64-71.
23. Dingemans AE, Spinhoven P, van Furth EF. Maladaptive core beliefs and eating disorder symptoms. Eat Behav. 2006 Aug; 7(3): 258-265.
24. Waller G. Schema-level cognitions in patients with binge eating disorder: a case control study. Int J Eat Disord. 2003 May; 33(4): 458-464.
25. Waller, G., Shah, R., Ohanian, V., & Elliott, P. Core beliefs in bulimia nervosa and depression: The discriminant validity of Young's Schema Questionnaire. Behav Ther. 2001; 32(1), 139-153.
26. Young JE, Klosko JS, Weishaar ME. Schema Therapy: A Practitioner's Guide. New York: The Guilford Press; 2003.
27. Contreras-Rodríguez O, Martín-Pérez C, Vilar-López R, Verdejo-Garcia A. Ventral and Dorsal Striatum Networks in Obesity: Link to Food Craving and Weight Gain. Biol Psychiatry. 2017 May 1; 81(9): 789-796.
28. Ball SA, Cobb-Richardson P, Connolly AJ, Bujosa CT, O'neall TW. Substance abuse and personality disorders in homeless drop-in center
clients: symptom severity and psychotherapy retention in a randomized clinical trial. Compr Psychiatry. 2005 Sep-Oct; 46(5): 371-379.
29. Ljubisavljevic M, Maxood K, Bjekic J, Oommen J, Nagelkerke N. Long-Term Effects of Repeated Prefrontal Cortex Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Food Craving in Normal and Overweight Young Adults. Brain Stimul. 2016 Nov - Dec; 9(6): 826-833.
29. Mengotti P, Aiello M, Terenzi D, Miniussi C, Rumiati RI. How brain response and eating habits modulate food energy estimation. Physiol Behav. 2018 May 1; 188: 18-24.
30. Fregni F, Orsati F, Pedrosa W, Fecteau S, Tome FA, Nitsche MA. et al. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex modulates the desire for specific foods. Appetite. 2008 Jul; 51(1): 34-41.
31. Val-Laillet D, Aarts E, Weber B, Ferrari M, Quaresima V, Stoeckel LE, et al. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity. Neuroimage Clin. 2015 Mar 24; 8:1-31.
32. Ray MK, Sylvester MD, Osborn L, Helms J, Turan B, Burgess EE. The critical role of cognitive-based trait differences in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) suppression of food craving and eating in frank obesity. Appetite. 2017 Sep 1; 116: 568-574.
33. Macedo IC, de Oliveira C, Vercelino R, Souza A, Laste G, Medeiros LF, et al. Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation reduces food craving in Wistar rats. Appetite. 2016 Aug 1; 103: 29-37.
34. Kekic M, McClelland J, Campbell I, Nestler S, Rubia K, David AS. The effects of prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on food craving and temporal discounting in women with frequent food cravings. Appetite. 2014 Jul; 78: 55-62.
35. Goldman RL, Borckardt JJ, Frohman HA, O'Neil PM, Madan A, Campbell LK, et al. Prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) temporarily reduces food cravings and increases the self-reported ability to resist food in adults with frequent food craving. Appetite. 2011 Jun; 56(3): 741-746.
36. Montenegro RA, Okano AH, Cunha FA, Gurgel JL, Fontes EB, Farinatti PT. Prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation associated with aerobic exercise change aspects of appetite sensation in overweight adults. Appetite. 2012 Feb; 58(1): 333-338.
37. Lapenta OM, Sierve KD, de Macedo EC, Fregni F, Boggio PS. Transcranial direct current stimulation modulates ERP-indexed inhibitory control and reduces food consumption. Appetite. 2014 Dec; 83: 42-48.
38. Jauch-Chara K, Kistenmacher A, Herzog N, Schwarz M, Schweiger U, Oltmanns KM. Repetitive electric brain stimulation reduces food intake in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Oct; 100(4): 1003-1009.
39. Sauvaget A, Trojak B, Bulteau S, Jiménez-Murcia S, Fernández-Aranda F, Wolz I, et al. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in behavioral and food addiction: a systematic review of efficacy, technical, and methodological issues. Front Neurosci. 2015 Oct 9; 9: 349-356.