عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Introduction: Attentional bias refers to grasping of attention by a stimulus in competition with others. The literature emphasizes on importance of attentional bias to addiction-related cues in drug following and relapse. In this paper, attentional bias modification used for decreasing attentional bias in smokers. Besides, the operant conditioning was combined with attentional bias modification method for the first time.
Method: The design of this paper was experimental. Attentional bias of three groups (control, attentional bias modification and attentional bias modification with reinforcement and punishment) each consisting of 20 participant, was assessed in three times (pre-test, post-test and follow up). Between pre-test and post-test, the control group received a neutral training while the second group received attentional bias modification training and the third group received attentional bias modification training with reinforcement and punishment, respectively. Dot-probe task was used for assessing, attentional bias modification and attentional bias modification with reinforcement and punishment.
Results: The results indicated that there was a significant difference between three groups in attentional bias at post-test, the group of attentional bias modification with reinforcement and punishment had the least of attentional bias and the group of control had the highest attentional bias. Also, there was a significant difference between control group and two experimental groups, but there was not any difference between attentional bias modification group and attentional bias modification with reinforcement and punishment group in attentional bias in follow up.
Conclusion: Basis on this paper, attentional bias modification is a significant and efficient intervention. Also, the operant conditioning could be added to classical method successfully. The research and clinical implications of this method was mentioned. This paperâs finding suggests more investigation on this new method for the other addiction disorders in future research.