طراحی و آزمون الگویی از پیشایندهای علائم بدریخت انگاری بدنی در دانشجویان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روانشناسی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه روانشناسی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه روانشناسی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه: هدف از پژوهش حاضر، طراحی و آزمون الگویی از پیشایندهای علائم بدریخت­انگاری بدنی در دانشجویان کارشناسی بود. در الگوی پیشنهادی پژوهش، متغیرهای استفاده از رسانه، درونی­سازی الگوهای رسانه، حساسیت به­طرد مبتنی­بر ظاهر، کمال­گرایی ظاهری و باورهای ناکارآمد درمورد ظاهر به­عنوان متغیرهای پیشایند، و متغیرهای نگرانی از بدشکلی بدنی، اضطراب اجتماعی مربوط­به ظاهر، کناره­گیری اجتماعی و رفتارهای جبرانی برای زیبایی و تناسب اندام (استفاده از لوازم آرایشی، جراحی زیبایی و تلاش برای تناسب اندام) به­عنوان علائم بدریخت­انگاری درنظر گرفته شد.
روش: طرح پژوهش حاضر از نوع همبستگی و از طریق الگویابی معادلات ساختاری (SEM) بود. تعداد 540 نفر، شامل 337 زن و 203 مرد، با استفاده از روش نمونه­گیری چندمرحله­ای تصادفی از بین دانشجویان کارشناسی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز انتخاب شدند و به هشت مقیاس پژوهش پاسخ دادند. برای آزمودن الگوی پیشنهادی پژوهش، از روش الگویابی معادلات ساختاری، با تبعیت از رویکرد دومرحله­ای اندرسون و گربینگ (1988)، استفاده شد. همچنین، برای بررسی معناداری اثرات غیرمستقیم موجود در الگوی پژوهش، روش بوت­استراپ به­کار گرفته­شد.
یافته­ها: نتایج تحلیل­ها نشان داد که شاخص­های برازش برای الگوی پژوهش در دامنه قابل­قبولی قرار دارند؛ با این حال، با انجام برخی اصلاحات، الگو به برازش مطلوب­تری دست یافت. همچنین، این نتایج نشان داد که همه مسیرهای مستقیم در الگوی پژوهش (به جز مسیر استفاده از رسانه به کمال­گرایی ظاهری و حساسیت به­طرد مبتنی بر ظاهر) معنادار است. نتایج حاصل از روش بوت­استراپ نیز نشان داد که همه مسیرهای غیرمستقیم الگو معنادار است. 
نتیجه­گیری: به­طورکلی نتایج حاصل از پژوهش حاضر نحوه شکل­گیری علائم بدریخت­انگاری، به­خصوص رفتارهای جبرانی برای زیبایی و تناسب اندام، را ازطریق تأثیرات رسانه و متغیرهای شناختی و شخصیتی را در یک نمونه ایرانی نشان می­دهد. همچنین، این نتایج در بافت نظری و تجربی تبیین شد و تلویحات نظری و کاربردی آن ارائه شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Designing and Testing Model of the Antecedents of Body Dysmorphic Symptoms in Students

نویسندگان [English]

  • M Khanzadeh, 1
  • K Beshlideh 2
  • najmeh hamid 2
  • S.A Marashi, 3
1 دانشجوی دکتری روانشناسی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران
2 دانشیار، گروه روانشناسی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران
3 استادیار، گروه روانشناسی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The purpose of this study was designing and testing a model of antecedents of body dysmorphic symptoms in undergraduate studentsof Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. In the research's proposed model, media consumption, internalization of media models, appearance-based rejection sensitivity, appearance perfectionism and dysfunctional beliefs about appearance considered as antecedent variables, and body image concern, social anxiety about appearance, social withdrawal and compensatory behaviors for beauty and fitness (use of cosmetics, cosmetic surgery and efforts for fitness) were symptoms of body dysmorphic.
Method: This study’s research design was correlational, through structural equation modeling (SEM). 542 undergraduate studentsof Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz (337 women and 203 men) was selected by using multistage random sampling method and completed eight scales of present study. The structural modeling analysis, with application of Anderson & Gerbing's two-step approach was used to test the proposed model. Also, bootstrapping method was used to evaluate indirect effects in the model. 
Results: Results showed that the fit indices for the proposed model are in the acceptable range; however, by imposing some modifications, the model achieves better fitness.  Also, the results showed that all direct paths (except paths of media to appearance-based rejection sensitivity and perfectionism physical) are significant. As well, results of bootstrapping method showed that all indirect paths of the model are significant.
Conclusion: In general, results of present study showed formation of dysmorphic symptoms, especially compensational behaviors for beauty and fitness, through media effects, cognitive and personality variables in an Iranian sample. Also, these results in a theoretical and experimental tissue were explained and their theoretical and practical implications were presented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Media
  • dysfunctional beliefs about appearance
  • body dismorphic symptoms
  • compensatory behaviors for beauty and fitness
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