عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: This study aims to investigate the impacts of individual and family psychoeducation on bipolar 1 patients to balance the Lithium and Bilirubin biomarkers while in psychiatric routin treatment.
Method: After investigating inclusion and exclusion criteria, a sample of 66 bipolar disorder I patients were purposfuly selected. Subjects were divided into three groups randomly: individual- psychoeducation, family- psychoeducation and control group. The first two experimental groups received individual and family psychoeducation, while the control group had simple visits by a counselor. Lithium and Bilirubin serume levels were measured using the Pars Azmoon laboratory kits in three phases of pretest, posttest and follow-up. Data were extracted and analyzed by a Multivariate Analysis of Covariance.
Results: Results showed a significant difference for the Lithium serum level of research groups. Family psychoeducation group at posttest showed a significant higher average than control group. The family psychoeducation group at 2 months follow up was higher in the serum Lithium level than control group as well.
Conclusion: Family psychoeducation could balance the lithium serum levels, and control the symptoms of bipolar disorder 1 in short and long term. The adjunct individual and family psychoeducation are recommended to this patients beside their routin psychiatric treatments.
1- de Sousa RT, Zarate CA, Zanetti MV, Costa AC, Talib LL, Gattaz WF, et al. Oxidative stress in early stage bipolar disorder and the association with response to lithium. Journal of psychiatric research. 2014; (50): 36-41.
2- Colom F, Vieta E, Martinez-Aran A, Reinares M, Benabarre A, Gasto C. Clinical factors associated with treatment noncompliance in euthymic bipolar patients. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2000; (61): 549-55
3- Fendri C, Mechri A, Khiari G, Othman A, Kerkeni A, Gaha L. Oxidative stress involvement in schizophrenia pathophysiology: a review. L'Encephale. 2005; (32): 244-52.
4- Yasukawa R, Miyaoka T, Yasuda H, Hayashida M, Inagaki T, Horiguch J. Increased urinary excretion of biopyrrins, oxidative metabolites of bilirubin, in patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry research. 2007; (153): 203-7.
5- Dalman C, Cullberg J. Neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia—a vulnerabilitv factor for mental disorder? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1999; (100): 469-71.
6- Hashimoto K. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a biomarker for mood disorders: An historical overview and future directions. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 2015; (64(: 341-57.
7- Kim H., Rapoport S., & Rao J. Altered expressions of apoptotic factors and synaptic markers in postmortem brain from bipolar disorder patients, Neurobiology of disease. 2015; ( 37): 596-603.
8- Wei S, Xu H, Xia D, Zhao R. Curcumin attenuates the effects of transport stress on serum cortisol concentration, hippocampal NO production, and BDNF expression in the pig. Domestic animal endocrinology. 2015; (39): 231-9.
9- Stang P, Frank C, Ulcickas YM, Wells K, Burch S. Impact of bipolar disorder:results from a screening study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016; (9): 42-7.
10- Bassili R, Stiller A, Radloff-Gabriel D, Milev R, Jamieson M. Pilot evaluation of a psychoeducational group for people with bipolar disorder. Queens Health Sci J. 2009; (9): 12-6.
11- Madigan K, Egan P, Brennan D. A randomised con- trolled trial of carer-focussed multi-family group psychoedu- cation in bipolar disorder.Eur Psych. 2012; 27(3): 281-4.
12- Even C, Thuile J, Kalck-Stern M, Criquillion-Doublet S, Gorwood P, Rouillon F. Psychoeducation for patients with bipolar disorder receiving lithium: short and long term impact on locus of control and knowledge about lithium. Journal of affective disorders. 2012; (123): 299-302.
13- Amini H, Sharifi V, Nejatisafa A, Arbabi M, Tabatabaie M, Alimadadi Z, et al. One year follow-up of patients with bipolar disorder admitted to Roozbeh Hospital. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. 2009; (15): 168-74.
14- Perlis RH, Ostacher MJ, Patel JK, Marangell LB, Zhang H, Wisniewski SR, et al. Predictors of recurrence in bipolar disorder: primary outcomes from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). American Journal of Psychiatry. 2006; 163(2): 217-24.
15- Gumus F, Buzlu S, Cakir S. Effectiveness of individual psychoeducation on recurrence in bipolar
disorder; a controlled study. Archives of psychiatric nursing. 2015; 29(3): 174-9.
16- Karatsoreos IN, McEwen BS. Psychobiological allostasis: resistance, resilience and vulnerability. Trends in cognitive sciences. 2011; 15(12): 576-84.
17- Thomas L. Clinical laboratory diagnostics: Use and assessment of clinical laboratory results: TH-Books Verlagsgesellschaft. 1998.
18- Yamaguchi T, Shioji I, Sugimoto A, Yamaoka M. Psychological stress increases bilirubin metabolites in human urine. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2002; (293): 517-20.
19- Miklowitz DJ. Adjunctive psychotherapy for bipolar disorder: state of the evidence. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2008; (165): 1408-19.
20- Bartoli F, Crocamo C, Dakanalis A, Brosio E. Purinergic system dysfunctions in subjects with bipolar disorder: A comparative cross-sectional study.Addiction Journal. 2017; 73(2):1-6.
21- Sun X, Wang JF,Tseng M, Young LT. Down regulation in components of the mitochondrial electron transport chainin the postmortem frontal cortex of subjects with bipolardisorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2015; 31(5): 189–96.
22- Murray SL, Holmes JG. Seeing virtues in faults: Negativity and the transformation of interpersonal narratives in close relationships. Journal of personality and social psychology. 1993;65(4):707.
23- Atri A, Sharma M. Psychoeducation: implications for the profession of health education. Californian Journal of Health Promotion. 2007; (5): 32-9.
24- Colom F. Keeping therapies simple: psychoeducation in the prevention of relapse in affective disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2011; (198): 338-40.
25- Wong QJ, Gregory B, McLellan LF. A review of scales to measure social anxiety disorder in clinical and epidemiological studies. Current psychiatry reports. 2016; (18): 1-15.
26- Barnes E, Simpson S, Griffiths E, Hood K, Craddock N, Smith DJ. Developing an online psychoeducation package for bipolar disorder. Journal of Mental Health. 2011; (20): 21-31.
27- Kallestad H, Wullum E, Scott J. The long term outcomes of an effectiveness trial of group versus Individual psychoeducation for bipolar disorders. JAD. 2017; (16): 21-31.
28- Vaghee S, Salarhaji A, Asgharipour N. Effects of psychoeducation on stigma in family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia: a clinical trial.Evidence Based Care Journal. 2016; (5): 63-76.
29- Hidalgo D, Mateu A, Reinares M.Psychoeducation in bipolar disorder with a SIMPLe smartphone application.Journal of Affective Disorder. 2016; ( 20(: 58-66.